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ESL Guide


  1. Agent/Broker: Channel intermediaries that do not take title to merchandise; facilitate
  2. Artist/team page: Page where team-specific and artist-specific events are listed.
  3. Banner: Graphical image hosted on website; often sold as advertisement to third party. Users who click on the banner are taken to the sponsor/advertiser’s website. Banners usually are positioned horizontally and are located at the top portion of a web page. Size of standard banner is 468 x 60.
  4. Brand Equity: Added value a name gives a product (reputation)
  5. Brand Purchase Decision: Decision making for selecting a particular brand of item from the variety of available brands with similar purpose & content.
  6. Came from codes: Cookies embedded on clients websites which track how many times users clicked on the link place on a clients’ website and how many tickets were sold as a result of the clients’ website referral.
  7. Cannibalization: 2 products, same manufacturer; one takes other’s customers.
  8. Category page: Genre-specific pages on a ticketing website that feature concerts, sports, arts and family event information. There are national default category pages, as well as local market-specific category pages.
  9. Category Purchase Decision: Cognitive decision where something is grouped together & responded to based upon brand rather than quality.
  10. Channel Intermediaries: Way manufacturer gets goods to consumers; independent middle person (wholesaler or retailers)
  11. Channel Promotional Strategies: Tactic to move a product through the distribution channel. Push, Pull or Both.
  12. Communication Strategy: Brief statement to clarify target market, benefits or value of the product, and guide & unify all prep of advertising copy.
  13. Consumers: A person who purchases a product or service for personal or household use.; end-users
  14. Conversion rate: Percentage of users who purchase tickets as a result of an offer made available. Formula = # of users who bought tickets/ overall number of users whom the offer was made available.
  15. Copy: Text of an advertisement
  16. CPA: Cost per acquisition; cost per acquiring, determined by calculating the number of customers gained thought the campaign vs. the overall cost of the campaign
  17. CPM: Cost per thousand
  18. CTR: Click though rate. Formula= number of clicks/ number of impressions. Typically used in electronic media (email campaigns, website exposure.)
  19. Customer accounts: Number of accounts/ customers on the host from phone and internet transactions.
  20. Customers: Person who purchases, especially regularly
  21. Demographics: Characteristics of a population such as age, sex, income; used for research or decisions.
  22. Differentiation: Positioning of a brand to differentiate it from its competition & create a unique image
  23. Dynamic pricing: Ticket price fluctuates in real time based on inventory supply and consumer demand.
  24. Email accounts: Total number of customers with email addresses on the system. Not all email address are valid.
  25. Feasibility: Degree of practicality of planned new product or business venture’s success
  26. Hits: Not a reliable data point to use. Each time a graphic image is served on a page it represents a hit. Since each page has multiple graphics it can result in multiple hits per page and therefore graphic-heavy websites can result in more clicks without higher traffic.
  27. Home page: First page on a website. There is a national default page as well as a local market specific home page.
  28. Impressions: Number of times a specific marketing asset is displayed or made available for viewing by customers.
  29. Line Extension: Practice of using a current brand name to enter a new market segments in its product class
  30. Market Modification: ID new market for same product
  31. Market Segmentation: Separate markets into common needs groups.
  32. Market Share: Company sales/Industry Sales = %
  33. Marketing Mix: 4 P’s : Product, Price, Promotion, Place
  34. Media matrix: The online equivalent of the Nielson rating system, ranking websites by traffic, unique visitors and average time spent on websites, etc.
  35. Media: Communication vehicles paid to present an advertisement to its target audience.
  36. On-sale: The moment tickets are made available to the general public for sale.
  37. Opt ins: Number of email addresses of customers who have given their permission to be reached via email in order to take advantage of special marketing offers that might be of interest. When a notification campaign is deployed it is sent to “opt in” users only.
  38. Page view: Each time a webpage is served during a web session. Example: In a single visitor session, if the user goes to the home page, views a search result, and visits an event detail page, that would count as 3 page views.
  39. Password: A generic password used to let a specific audience take advantage of an odder. Generic password campaign could have a viral effect on consumers. This differs from unique password campaign, as a non-unique password can be used multiple times.
  40. Per-capita spending: Average non-ticket dollars spent per person at an event; includes parking, merchandise and concession revenue. Also referred to as Per Cap.
  41. Perceptual Mapping: A graph displaying consumers’ perceptions of product attributes across 2 or more dimensions.
  42. Positioning: The science of how a product or service is meant to be perceived by consumers vis a vis its competition (new term to add) Frequency = number of times audience members are exposed to an advertising message.
  43. Presale: When ticket are made available to a targeted group in advance of the public on-sale.
  44. Price Adjustments: Change to customary price
  45. Pricing Objectives: Standard pricing company hopes to achieve as compete in market against competition while still making a profit.
  46. Product Benefits: What product can do for a customer
  47. Product Feature: Characteristics that support product benefit
  48. Product Life Cycle: 4 stages of product’s life: Introduction, Growth, Maturity, Decline
  49. Product Modification: Change part of a product to make it better
  50. Promotion Mix: Various communication techniques to develop a promotional strategy
  51. Promotion/splash page: Page created using promotions tool to host detailed information about a specific ticket promotion to consumers. Also informally referred to as a splash page.
  52. Promotion: A ticket offer made available to consumers via website, phones, or outlet. Ticket offer can either be a discount, gift with purchase or sweepstakes.
  53. Psychographics: Grouping of consumers into market segments on the basis of psychological makeup – values, attitudes, personality, and lifestyle.
  54. Reach: Used in traditional media (as well as new media) is the number of un-duplicated audience members exposed to an advertising message.
  55. Referral sale: When a user arrives at a website from another site. It is considered a referral. Referral sale are tracked by Came from Codes.
  56. Relationship Marketing: Marketing aimed at creating a strong, lasting relationship with a core group of customers
  57. Repositioning: Update or change the marketing of a product or service
  58. Request for proposal (RFP): Request for a formal financial and capabilities proposal to secure a venue’s ticketing business. Most government-operated venues are required to go through an RFP process to select and major vendors, including ticketing providers.
  59. Request for Qualification/request for information (RFQ/RFI): Sometimes precede and RFP and typically does not require a financial proposal, simply a capabilities overview.
  60. Research Respondents: People who take part in a research sample
  61. Right of first refusal: A benefit offered to season and suite ticket holders, allowing them first right to purchase tickets to other events within the venues before tickets are available to the general public.
  62. Right well: Right-hand side of the home and category pages on a web site. Place where merchandising placements are located.
  63. Sample Population: Group of respondents which represent the population
  64. Sell through rate: Percentage of tickets sold against the total number of tickets available.
  65. Skyscraper: Vertically positioned banner. Varies in size.
  66. Spotlight: Center area of the home page where a single prominent merchandising placement is located.
  67. Target Market: A group of consumers to whom you are trying to market your product or service
  68. Test Marketing: A limited intro of a product or service to test public reaction for a full market strategy
  69. Tile: Another term uncommonly used for “smaller image found anywhere above or below the fold on a web page” Tiles could be click-able or could simply represent and image.
  70. Trade/barter: A non-cash trade of goods, typically tickets in exchange for services, like printing or media.
  71. Value Pricing: Increased benefit with a decreased price.
  72. Value: Perceived benefit over cost (price).
  73. Yield management: Any activity or technology that assists with managing inventory and pricing to deliver maximum financial results