1 Diamond: A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments typically appeal to the budget-minded traveler. They provide essential, no-frills accommodations. They meet the basic requirements pertaining to comfort, cleanliness, and hospitality.”
1 Star: A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil One-Star Lodging Establishment is a limited service Hotel/Motel/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment.”
1/50: One for Fifty. Facility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty room nights picked up and paid for. While 1/50 was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event.
100% Star Billing: Requirement by artist that his/her name appear in a type style and size equal to or greater than other names in advertising and promotional materials and media.
110/60: Common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220 volt/50 cycle power only.
2 Diamond: A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler seeking more than the basic accommodations. There are modest enhancements to the overall physical attributes, design elements, and amenities of the facility typically at a moderate price.”
2 Star: A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Two-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn that is considered a clean, comfortable and reliable establishment, but also has expanded amenities, such as a full-service restaurant on the property.”
20-Footer: A 20' by (usually) 10' exhibit space. Similar terminology (a 30 footer, etc.) may be used.
24-Hour Hold: A term used to describe the type of reservation made on function space within a venue (hotel, convention center, etc.). An event organizer who has 24-hour hold on a space has exclusive use and access to that space for a period of 24-hours, usually 12:01 am – 12:00 pm.
24-Hour Power: When an exhibitor orders power to be left on in a booth/stand for 24 hours during run of the event; often required when there are refrigerators, fish tanks, or computers in booth/stand.
2-by-2 Slide: Piece of 35mm photographic film in a 2-by-2 inch (5-by-5 centimeter) cardboard, glass, or plastic mount. See SLIDE.
2-D Bar Code: A larger-than-average bar code that uses the PDF417 standard (the same used for e-stamps). Stores up to 1,800 characters in bar code on standard paper badge, which can then be used by exhibitors to get contact information from registrants.
3 Diamond: A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments appeal to the traveler with comprehensive needs. Properties are multifaceted with a distinguished style, including marked upgrades in the quality of physical attributes, amenities, and level of comfort provided.”
3 Star: A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Three-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which is well-appointed, with a full-service restaurant and expanded amenities, such as, but not limited to: fitness center, golf course, tennis courts, 24-hour room service, and optional turndown service.”
3-Dimensional: 3-D. A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.
3-Phase: Type of alternating current used in high powered electrical applications.
3-Wire: Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to positive and negative wires.
4 Diamond: A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments are upscale in all areas. Accommodations are progressively more refined and stylish. The physical attributes reflect an obvious enhanced level of quality throughout. The fundamental hallmarks at this level include an extensive array of amenities combined with a high degree of hospitality, service, and attention to detail.”
4 Star: A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “Mobil Four-Star Lodging Establishment is a Hotel/Resort/Inn which provides a luxury experience with expanded amenities in a distinctive environment. Services may include, but are not limited to: automatic turndown service, 24 hour room service, and valet parking.”
4-Color Separation: Process of printing a full color image utilizing four colored screened patterns from which printing plates can be engraved.
4-Hour Call: Minimum work period for which union labor must be paid in special circumstances (generally, a minimum call is one hour.). Not to be confused with minimum charges to exhibitors applied by contractors that service events.
5 Diamond: A rating of the American Automobile Association (AAA). “These establishments reflect the characteristics of the ultimate in luxury and sophistication. Accommodations are first class. The physical attributes are extraordinary in every manner. The fundamental hallmarks at this level are to meticulously serve and exceed all guest expectations while maintaining an impeccable standard of excellence. Many personalized services and amenities enhance an unmatched level of comfort.”
5 Star: A Mobil Travel Guide Rating. “A Mobil Five-Star Lodging Establishment provides consistently superlative service in an exceptionally distinctive luxury environment with expanded services. Attention to detail is evident throughout the Hotel/Resort/Inn from the bed linens to staff uniforms.”
501c: A section of the IRS code that defines, and governs the actions of various types of tax-exempt organizations. For example, 501c (3) organizations are non-profit, educational, charitable and scientific organizations.
6 Box: An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. Sometimes called Sex Box. See DOG HOUSE.
6-by-6 Rule: Audiovisual guidelines by which no transparency of slide should contain more than six words per line of text and no more than six lines of text.
a la Broche: Cooked on a skewer. Can be beef, chicken or shrimp. See EN BROCHETTE. See Also SHISH KEBOB.
a la Carte: French term meaning "from the menu." Each item is individually priced. Used in tour literature to indicate a choice of dishes will be available.
a la Grecque: Prepared Greek style with tomatoes, garlic, black olives and parsley.
a la King: Cooked in white cream sauce with vegetables (e.g., Chicken à la King).
a la Meunière (moonyare): Dredging, a technique that allows flour to form a thin, golden crust on sautéed or fried items, (e.g., Trout Meunière).
a la Mode: 1) In the style of. 2) Ice cream on pie. 3) Mashed potatoes on beef.
a la Provencale: Prepared with garlic and olive oil.
a la Vapeur: Steamed.
A List: A catering department's steady, extra employees. They are the first called to work when temporary help is needed.
A/C: Air Conditioning. See HVAC.
A/V Contractor: Supplier of technical staff and audiovisual equipment (e.g. projectors, screens, sound systems, video, and staging).
A/V Request Form: Form given to speakers during the planning stages of an event to allow them to request the audiovisual equipment they will need for their presentations.
A/V Technician: An audiovisual professional who is responsible on-site for lighting, sound, video, staging or other similar elements of an event function.
A1: 1) First class condition. 2) A name brand steak sauce.
A440: Designated international pitch to which pianos are tuned.
AA: 1) Alcoholics Anonymous. 2) American Airlines.
AAA: American Automobile Association.
AAAE: American Association of Airport Executives.
AAF: American Academy of Florists
AAR: Against All Risks. A term often found in insurance policies and contracts.
AATTA: African-American Travel and Tourism Association
ABA: American Bus Association; comprised of bus companies, operators and owners
Above the Line Advertising: Traditional commission-paying media: press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor; media handled by full-service agencies.
Absorption Coefficient: Efficiency of a material to absorb sound at a particular frequency (which relates to sound wave length and material thickness).
Absorption: Ability of a material to absorb sound energy and reduce sound intensity.
Abstract Board: Usually rolling corkboards used for attaching copies of research papers for authors to discuss with participants. See POSTER SESSION.
Abstract: 1) Written summaries of speeches or papers, generally between 200-500 words. See CALL FOR PAPERS. See Also CONFERENCE PAPERS. 2) Laser presentations, graphic designs or patterns that are not representational of concrete objects. 3) A brief statement of content.
AC Cable: Any wire conductor, regardless of size or connection that carries an alternating current.
AC Hum: Humming sound heard in an audio system, usually the result of a Ground Loop which is being amplified by the system.
Acceleration Clause: A provision sometimes used in contracts to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default or lack of credit by the organization. May also apply in other situations, such as assignments. Sometimes used in a hotel to accelerate deposit payment schedule or to demand full prepayment of master account in the event of a default by organization.
Accent Lighting: Directional lighting used to highlight a particular area or object to draw attention to that portion of the field of view.
Acceptance: A requirement for entering into a binding contract. If a contract proposal (offer) is made, it is accepted if the offeree signs the offer as submitted. If the offeree makes any changes to the offer before signing, it is a counter offer, not acceptance.
Accepted Practices Exchange: APEX. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
Access Panel: Removable panel or section of exhibit to permit access to lamps, projectors, mechanisms, etc.
Accessibility: 1) Airline lift into and out of a destination. See Also LIFT. 2) Capable of being used by people with physical challenges and disabilities. This is an important aspect of the United States’ Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Accessorial Charges: Generally refers to air-freight shipments. Airfreight forwarders can provide many services generally not available from common carriers. In most cases, these charges are not included in the per-pound rate of the carriers. Services include, but are not limited to, inside pickups & deliveries, special pickups & deliveries (specific time of day), waiting time, etc.
Accident Report: A document prepared to record information including time, date, location, parties involved, witnesses, and nature or description of an incident. See INCIDENT REPORT.
Accommodation: 1) Any seat, berth, room, or service provided and/or sold to a guest, attendee or passenger. 2) Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), a step taken to allow a person with a disability to participate in an event or employment.
Accompanying Person: Guest or spouse of an attendee.
Account Sheet: 1) Form used to keep track of number of rooms sold and/or still available. See TALLY SHEET. 2) Designates equipment, materials and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations.
Accreditation: Official authorization or approval; to provide with credentials; to send (an envoy) with letters of authorization; to recognize or vouch for as conforming with a standard; to recognize a college as maintaining academic standards; to consider or recognize as outstanding; approval given by various trade associations to a travel agency allowing the sale of tickets and other accommodations.
Accrual Accounting: 1) An accounting method that enters income and expenses into the books at the time of contract versus when payment is received or expenses incurred (cash accounting). 2) A system in which revenue and expenses are accounted for as soon as they are committed.
Acetate: Film positive or negative from which silk screens are produced. Also, a family of plastics for light transmission and surface protection.
Acetone: Solvent and/or adhesive agent for bonding many plastic materials.
Acknowledgement: Written notice that a room reservation request has been received and is being processed.
ACME: Association for Convention Marketing Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACOM: Association for Convention Operation Management. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
ACON: Air conditioned. See A/C. See Also HVAC.
Acoustic Baffle: Absorptive board or sound barricade that can be placed around or between acoustic sources to provide sound isolation or deadening and reduce acoustic leakage between multiple microphones (e.g. in a recording studio or live musical performance stage set-up).
Acoustical Tile: Composition board made into squares and placed upon the ceiling or walls to reduce sound.
Acoustician: Specialist in the behavior and control of audio energy within an environment.
Acoustics: Study of the performance of sound energy. Also the way in which sound energy performs in a given space.
ACRA: American Car Rental Association.
Across the Board: Includes everything; inclusive.
Acrylic Emulsion: A water-based latex made of acrylic polymer and used for coatings and/or impregnations.
Acrylic: The family of clear, color, and translucent thermoplastic resins such as Plexiglas or Lucite.
Act of God: An extraordinary natural event such as extreme weather, flood, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquake or similar natural disaster that cannot be reasonably foreseen or prevented over which a contracting party has no reasonable control, making performance of the contract illegal, impracticable or impossible, thus the parties have no legal responsibility to continue performance of the contract. See FORCE MAJEURE.
Action Station: Chefs prepare foods to order and serve them fresh to guests. Also called Performance Stations, or Exhibition Cooking. Popular items for action stations include: pasta, grilled meat or shrimp, carved meats, sushi, crepes, omelets, flaming desserts, Caesar Salad, etc.
Active Crossover: An electronic device which filters and selectively amplifies frequencies, separating the frequencies into sections or bands, and routing them to outputs designed to drive power amplifiers and in turn, speakers. The frequencies filtered depend on the electrical value of the component parts in the circuits of the device, but not on the source or load impedances connected to the device, except in the case where the crossover is actually a passive crossover designed for insertion in the medium-level signal lines of an audio system rather than in speaker lines.
Active Language: The language being used by the speaker.
Actual Cash Value: ACV. Replacement cost of lost or damaged property less depreciation.
Actual Weight: Also known as gross shipping weight. Determined by (1) weighing a vehicle empty, (2) loading a shipment and returning the vehicle to the scale to obtain the weight, and (3) subtracting the two weights. Can also be obtained by individually weighing each piece of freight.
Ad Hoc Committee: Committee formed to deal with a specific issue to be resolved upon making its final report.
Ad Valorem Tax: Tax applied to an item according to the value of an item. See DUTY.
ADA Compliant: Ready to or disposed to perform in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
Additional Insured: An individual or organization listed as covered by a primary insurance agreement.
Add-One: Any component of a package tour that is not included in the package price, but may be purchased as an added feature or to extend the length of the package. Tour options are purchased at additional cost.
Adjoining Rooms: Rooms with common walls, which do not have connecting doors.
Adjustable Standard: Vertical support that allows shelf bracket to be affixed at any point in the support.
Adlux: A black and white photo transparency.
ADME: Association of Destination Management Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Admission Card: Admission card confirming a booking and registration to an event. See CONGRESS CARD.
Admission Ticket: Ticket used for admission to an event.
Adult Learner: A student who is independently employed and usually pursuing education to attain a specific, practical goal.
Adult Staff-to-Child Ratio: The ratio of adults to children required during a childcare/youth program. Accepted ratios are 3:1 for infants, 4:1 for toddlers, and 6:1 for children up to eight years old.
ADR: Acronym for Average Daily Rate.
Advance Deposit: Amount of money paid to secure a room, facility or service in advance.
Advance Order: An order for goods and/or services ordered before the move-in date for an exhibition. Usually less expensive than a FLOOR ORDER.
Advance Rate: Fees associated with advance orders, which typically include discounts when paid in advance.
Advance Registration : Booking before an event takes places. Allows attendees to register for an event before it actually takes place. Done through mail, phone, internet or fax. See PRE-REGISTRATION.
Adventure Tour: A TOUR designed around an adventurous activity such as rafting, hiking or ballooning.
Advertising Specialties: Promotional items which include a firm's name and/or marketing message.
Advertising: Information about an event that the organizer pays to have printed or announced in various forms of media (e.g. press, TV, radio, cinema, outdoor).
Advisory Board: A group that offers advice or counsel to event organizer, event management, or other organization on strategic options such as conference content, exhibitor matters, contracting policies or other issues.
Advisory Capacity: A term indicating that a shipper's agent or representative is not empowered to make definitive decisions or adjustments without approval of the group or individual represented. See WITHOUT RESERVE.
AED: Automated External Defibrillator. Device installed in many large public areas (e.g. airports, hotels, convention centers). Can be used by any individual to administer life-saving care to person experiencing a heart attack.
Affiliation: Union of a society, firm or political party with another, but without loss of identity.
Affinity Group: Group sharing common interest, usually people who are members of an organization.
Affixed Merchandise: Products fastened to a display.
Affreightment (Contract of): An agreement between a shipping line (or similar carrier) and an importer or exporter in which cargo space is reserved on a vessel for a specified time and at a specified price. The importer/exporter is obligated to make payment whether or not the shipment is made.
Agenda: A list, outline or plan of items to be done or considered at an event or during a specific time block. May include time schedule.
Agent: 1) Broadly, one who acts or has the power to act: more usually, one that acts as the representative of another. Most frequently in travel, a specific kind of agent such as a retail travel agent. 2) Person that obtains engagements for entertainers is paid by the entertainers and has no contract for production responsibilities. 3) Person in a speaker bureau/agency that acts on behalf of the seller (speaker) or on behalf of the buyer (customer).
Agricultural Meeting: An event relating to the production of crops, meat, milk or eggs.
AH&LA: American Hotel and Lodging Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Air Cargo: Any property carried, or to be carried, in an aircraft, excluding passenger baggage.
Air Consignment Note: A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Air Express: Expedited airfreight, usually referring to overnight air.
Air Freight: Materials shipped via airplane.
Air Wall: Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See DIVIDER. See Also MOVABLE WALL, PARTITION.
Air Waybill: A bill of lading issued by the airline that covers both domestic and international flights transporting goods to a specified destination. Technically, it is a non-negotiable instrument of air transport that serves as a receipt for the shipper, indicating that the carrier has accepted the goods listed therein and obligates itself to carry the consignment to the airport of destination according to specified conditions. A bill of lading that covers domestic and international flights transporting goods. See AIR CONSIGNMENT NOTE. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Airfreight Forwarder: An airfreight company that transports freight via scheduled airlines. Forwarders do not operate their own planes.
Airport Hotel: Hotel located near a major airport; usually does not have a lot of recreational facilities.
Air-Ride Suspension: Smoothest ride for fragile cargo, made possible by two to four air bags located at the rear axle of the trailer, tractor or fifth-wheel.
Aisle Carpet: Carpet installed in aisles.
Aisle Sign: A sign, usually suspended, indicating aisle numbers or letters.
Aisle: 1) Area between a booth/stand for audience traffic movement. 2) Space between sets of tables, chairs or a booth/stand to allow passage of attendees. See GANGWAY.
All Expense Tour: See INCLUSIVE TOUR.
All Suite Hotel: See SUITE HOTEL.
All-Inclusive Tour: See INCLUSIVE TOUR.
All-Risks Insurance: Insurance against loss of or damage to property arising from any fortuitous cause except those that are specifically excluded. An insurance contract which provides All-Risks Insurance is an All-Risks policy.
Alpha List: A list arranged in alphabetical order, such as definitions in a glossary or event attendees.
Alteration: A change made by the client after any part of the production process has begun. Usually billed as an extra charge.
Alternate Media: Alternatives to print materials (e.g. Braille, large print, etc.) provided to assist people with disabilities in achieving full participation.
Alternative Dispute Resolution: Method for resolving disputes without going to court.
Alumni Tour: A TOUR designed for those people who have previously traveled with a particular tour company. Also Called REUNION TOUR.
Amandine: Served with thinly sliced almonds, sautéed in butter.
Ambience: Distinctive acoustical characteristic of a room or acoustic space due to the many sound reflections in the space (e.g., rooms that are said to be acoustically “dead” lack ambience).
Ambient Light: 1) Level of illumination from natural lighting sources already existing in an environment. 2) Uncontrolled and unintended illumination.
Amenity: Complimentary items in sleeping rooms such as writing supplies, bathrobes, fruit baskets, shower caps, shampoo and shoe shine mitt provided by facility for guests.
American Breakfast: A meal of fruits and/ or juices, cereal, eggs, meat, bakery goods and hot or cold beverages.
American Plan: AP. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
American Reception: Stand-up social function with beverage and sufficient food to replace a main meal.
American Service: Food is plated in the kitchen and placed before the guest. Side dishes are used for bread and butter and salad. Food is served from the left, beverages from the right, and all items are removed from the right. This is generally the service used for banquets. See PLATED SERVICE.
Americans with Disabilities Act : ADA. U.S. legislation passed in 1992 requiring public buildings (offices, hotels, restaurants, etc.) to make adjustments meeting minimum standards to make their facilities accessible to individuals with physical disabilities.
AMMC: Alliance of Meeting Management Companies. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Amorphic Lens: Special lens for projectors used to eliminate distortion in abnormally wide throws.
Amperage: An International System unit for the amount of electrical current transferred from one component to another. This specification is often important when considering the amplifier loudspeaker interface. See AMPERE.
Ampere: The standard measurement of current.
Amphitheater: Outdoor facility with a flat performance area surrounded by rising rows of seats or a grassy slope allowing the audience to view the performance. The seating area is usually a semi-circular shape or adapted to the surrounding landscape.
Amplification: Increase in signal quantity of either amplitude or power level.
Amplifier: Amp. 1) Device which increases the voltage and/or power level of signals fed through it. 2) Device enabling sound to be intensified.
Amplitude: Extreme range of a fluctuating quantity, as an alternating current, swing of a pendulum, etc., generally measured from the average or mean to the extreme. Also used to make reference to the overall volume of a signal.
AMS: Association Management Software
Analog: A method of conveying data electronically in relation to a television, radio or telephone signal by varying its frequency or amplitude.
Anamorphic Lens: Lens adapter designed to produce a wide screen image.
Anchor: An auger-type device used to secure the guy ropes of a tent to the ground, ranging in length from 30-48 inches with a helix of 4-8 inches in diameter. Anchors hold better than stakes do in bare earth and sand. See STAKES.
Ancillary Activities: All event-related support services within a facility that generate revenue.
Ancillary Center: Event facility that is typically part of a larger hospitality complex.
Andragogy: The art and science of helping adults learn as opposed to pedagogy, which is the science of helping children learn.
Androgogic Model: Knowles Theory. A theory that proposes that for adults to learn, the following must be addressed: adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn through experience; adults view learning as problem solving; adults only learn when the material is immediately relevant.
Angels on Horseback : Baked bacon-wrapped oysters.
Animation: A technique that creates an illusion of movement when used in rapid sequence.
Anodizing: The process of preserving metal by adding a protective oxide film by an electrolytic process.
ANSI: American National Standards Institute. An organization responsible for fostering the development of and approving technology standards in the United States. www.ansi.org
Answer Print: The first positive print of a movie film made from the rough edited negative.
Anti-Discrimination Laws: Laws that protect individuals or groups from bias and discrimination on the basis of factors such as age, sex, religion, national origin or disability. Anti discrimination laws may be imposed on the local (e.g. city, county), state or federal level. Federal laws prohibit discrimination in any place of public accommodation. Anti-discrimination provisions are sometimes included in contracts to allow a party to the contract to cancel without liability in the event the other party or parties is found guilty of engaging in discriminatory practices.
Antidiversion Clause: See DESTINATION CONTROL STATEMENT.
Antipasto: Italian appetizers that include olives, salami, peppers, marinated vegetable salads, sliced meats, cheeses and other similar foods.
Anti-Stat for Carpet: A spray that helps reduce static electricity in carpets.
Antistat Wax: A solution applied to plastics to minimize dust accumulation.
Antitrust Laws: Legislation designed to promote competition and prevent unfair practices that may lead to monopolies or suppression of competition.
Anvil Case: Reinforced molded plastic case, normally with foam cut-outs for transporting fragile materials.
AoD: Audio on Demand. Streaming Audio delivered via a network, available anytime, anywhere.
AP: American Plan. A type of hotel rate that includes the price of the room and all meals. Also Called FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See INCLUSIVE RATE. See Also BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Aperture Width/Height: Actual slide or film frame dimensions.
APEX Fare: Advance Purchase Excursion Fare (airline). Special fare at a lower rate.
APEX: Accepted Practices Exchange. An initiative of the meetings, conventions & exhibitions industry managed by the Convention Industry Council (CIC). APEX develops and manages the implementation of accepted practices (voluntary standards) for the industry.
Appellation: 1) Designated wine growing areas governed by the rules and regulations of a country's federal local government body. Rules vary from country to country but are similar in their attempt to stimulate the production of quality wines. Regulations are established by the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) in France, the Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) in Italy, the Denominaçao de Origem Controlada (DOC) in Portugal, the Denominación de Origen (DO) in Spain and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) in the United States. 2) Synonym for name.
Appetizer: Any small, bite-size food served before a meal to whet and excite the palate. Used synonymously with the term Hors d' Oeuvres, though this term more aptly describes finger food, whereas appetizer can also apply to a first course served at table.
Application Service Provider: ASP. A company that manages and distributes software-based solutions to customers across a wide area network from a central data center. In essence, ASPs are a way for organizations to outsource some or almost all aspects of their information technology needs.
Application Sharing: A feature of many videoconferencing systems that allows two or more people to use the same software program, even if all do not have it on their computer or conferencing system.
Appliqué: Any item applied to fabric or other surfaces for the purpose of decor.
Appointed Entity: Airline ticket sales outlet, such as a travel agency, accredited by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Apprentice: An individual who works in exchange for the learning experience, often unpaid.
Apron: Part of a stage in front of the main curtain.
AQ: Any quantity.
Arbitrage: The process of buying foreign exchange, stocks, bonds, and other commodities in one market and immediately selling them in another market at higher prices.
Arbitration: Private dispute resolution process often referred to as alternate dispute resolution, in which the parties agree to submit their dispute to an impartial third party for a decision. Depending on the type of arbitration, the arbitrator's decision may or may not be binding. Several organizations, including the American Arbitration Association and JAMS-Endispute, handle arbitration claims. Courts may require some disputes be submitted to arbitration instead of or prior to the formal trial process.
Arc Light: A light source providing high-intensity light utilizing a positive and negative metal rod (instead of a lightbulb) for large screens or long projection distances; also used in follow spotlights; replaced by xenon lamps in the 1980s.
Arch: A curved display ceiling that spans two points, such as a ceiling or entryway.
Architectural Cuisine: Menu items where food is stacked for height, such as endive boats filled with salad greens. See VERTICAL CUISINE.
Area Agreement: A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis.
Arena: Facility type featuring a large flat main floor surrounded by fixed seats in a sloping oval or modified oval shape, much steeper that the typical theater. Some are arranged in two or more tiers. Sight lines are nearly always designed for events the size of a hockey floor, circus, ice show, or basketball court.
Argon: An inert, colorless, odorless gas that creates a blue-green color inside a laser tube.
Armorply: A term for plywood or lumber with a metal veneer.
Arranged Environment: A learning environment with planned physical set-up and seating arrangements.
Arrival Manifest: An itemized list of anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Arrival Notice: A document issued by railroads, airlines and maritime services identifying the shipment is sent to the consignee or their agent and informing consignee/agent of cargo’s arrival.
Arrival Pattern: Anticipated dates and times of arrival of group members.
Arrival Time: Time or approximate time guests plan to arrive at a facility.
Arrival/Departure Pattern: A description of arrival and departure activities of an event’s attendees. See MAJOR ARRIVAL. See Also MAJOR DEPARTURE, GROUP ARRIVALS/DEPARTURES. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Art: Any materials (drawings, photographs, type) used in preparing camera-ready art. Also known as artwork.
Articles and By-laws: Rules adopted by an organization for managing its internal affairs.
As Directed: Based on time and at the direction of the customer.
ASAE: American Society of Association Executives.
ASCAP: American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A membership organization that represents individuals who hold the copyrights to music written in the United States and grants licensing agreements for the performance of that music.
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. A code that assigns numbers to alphabetic, numeric and certain other characters. ASCII is the most common format for text files in computers and on the Internet.
Ash Stand: Stand which holds ashtrays. A receptacle for tobacco ashes; an ashtray; ash can.
Aside: A dramatic device in which an actor speaks directly to the audience while other individuals onstage supposedly do not hear him or her.
ASM: Assistant stage manager.
ASP: Application Service Provider.
Aspect Ratio: The ratio of image width to height; pertaining to audiovisual, video and slides.
Assembly: 1) The process of erecting display component parts into a complete exhibit. 2) A general or formal meeting of an organization attended by representatives of its members for the purpose of deciding legislative direction, policy matters, the election of internal committees and approval of balance sheets, budgets, etc. Consequently, an assembly usually observes certain rules of procedure for its meetings; mostly prescribed in its Articles & By-laws.
Assessment: 1) The process used to evaluate a participant's skill level with respect to a set of materials or requirements. 2) A charge to a supplier(s) from a service entity such as Convention Bureau, Housing Bureau, etc. that is for a specific service such as convention center fees, busing, housing or other that is part of an event customer's agreement. This assessment is normally paid to the service provider directly by the supplier. Compare with REBATE.
Asset: Something of value that is owned.
Assistant Lead Dispatcher: The onsite staff member second in command of the transportation system. Assists the lead dispatcher and fills in when the lead dispatcher is not on site. Normally the assistant lead dispatcher is assigned to the command center.
Association Agreement: 1) A union contract covering companies and unions that bargain on an area-wide basis. 2) A union contract negotiated by a group of employers through an employer's association with the union representing their employees.
Association Booth/Stand: An exhibit booth/stand at which an association provides information about its purpose and services to members and prospective members.
Association Meeting: An event initiated by an association. See ASSOCIATION.
Association Staff: An individual who works for an association.
Association: An organized group of individuals and/or companies who band together to accomplish a common purpose, usually to provide for the needs of its members. Usually nonprofit. See TRADE ASSOCIATION.
ASTA; American Society of Travel Agents.
ASTD: American Society for Training and Development.
Asynchronous Learning: Any learning event that is delivered after the original live event or where the interaction is delayed over time. Typically this is on-demand and can be to video-on-demand (VoD), audio-on-demand (AoD), correspondence courses, email messages, bulletin boards, etc.
At Liberty: Euphemism used by actors, consultants, and others for unemployed or available for work. Those who are unemployed.
At Sight: A phrase indicating that payment on a draft or other negotiable contract is due upon demand.
At Site: Location of event or exhibit. See ON-SITE.
ATA Carnet: An international customs document that permits duty-free and tax-free temporary import of goods for up to one year. It eliminates or reduces VAT charges, customs fees, and bond fees. The initials "ATA" are an acronym of the French and English words "Admission Temporaire/Temporary Admission." ATA Carnets cover commercial samples; professional equipment; and, goods for presentation or use at trade fairs, shows, exhibitions, etc. Items not covered are consumable or disposable goods, which will not be returned home.
ATA: Air Transport Association of America. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
At-a-Glance Program: Condensed, quick reference version of an event's program. See POCKET PROGRAM.
ATC: Air Traffic Conference of America (a division of the Air Transport Association (ATA).
Athletic Meeting: An event that involves sports or athletic equipment. Athletes, guests or attendees may be in competition or demonstration.
Atmospheric: A term used to describe a lighting effect created by laser light projected through the air, often enhanced with theatrical fog; also known as aerial beams
Atmospherics: Use of color to create a mood in a room or exhibit.
Attendance Building: Marketing and promotional programs designed to increase attendance at conventions, trade shows, meetings, and events.
Attendance: Total number of people at an event.
Attendee Brochure: Direct mail piece sent to current and prospective attendees that promote the benefits of attending a specific event.
Attendee Scope: Where attendees come from. It is directly related to the spending characteristics of attendees who fall into each of these categories: INTERNATIONAL- Draws a national and international event audience; 15% or more of event delegates reside outside of event host country. NATIONAL-Draws a national event audience; More than 40% of delegates reside outside of a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city. REGIONAL-60% of delegates reside within a 400 mile (640 km) radius of event city; Delegates may reside in a multi-state area and/or a regionally homogenous international area. STATE/PROVINCE- More than 80% of delegates reside in event state/province (or event-sponsoring state/province when held in state/province other than home state/province; More than 20% of delegates reside outside a 50 mile (80 km) radius of event site; State/provincial audiences are less inclined to use air travel and local auto rental than regional audiences. LOCAL-80% of delegates reside within a 50 mile (80 km) of radius of event site; Local audiences typically do not require overnight accommodations.
Attendee: An individual, registered for or participating in an event. Includes delegates, exhibitors, media, speakers, and guests.
Attenuate: To reduce. In audio parlance, to reduce the level of an electrical signal as with a volume control.
Attraction: A natural or man-made facility, location, or activity that offers items of specific interest. An attraction can be a natural or scenic wonder (e.g. the Grand Canyon), a man-made theme park (e.g. Disneyland), a cultural or historic exhibition (e.g. World's Fair), or a wildlife/ecological park (e.g. zoo or aquarium).
Attractions: General all-0inclusive term travel industry marketers use to refer to products that have visitor appeal, like museums, historic sites, performing arts institutions, preservation districts, theme parks, entertainment and national sites.
Attrition Clause: Contract wording that outlines potential damages or fees that a party may be required to pay in the event that it does not fulfill minimum commitments in the contract.
Attrition: The difference between the actual number of sleeping rooms picked-up (or food-and-beverage covers or revenue projections) and the number or formulas agreed to in the terms of the facility’s contract. Usually there is an allowable shortfall before damages are assessed.
au Gratin: Foods sprinkled with crumbs and/or cheese and baked until browned
au Jus: Served with natural meat juices or gravy without thickening.
au Lait: With milk (e.g. café au lait).
Audience Count: The number of people in an audience. In a controlled situation, this number is most accurately found through ticket sales, turnstile counts, or established seating capacities. In a non-controlled situation, estimates from law enforcement agencies, park and recreation departments, or other organizations involved in crowd control are usually reliable. See COVER. See Also HEAD COUNT.
Audience Left and Right; Stage directions from the audience’s perspective. This is the opposite of STAGE LEFT AND RIGHT. See CAMERA LEFT AND RIGHT. See Also SCREEN LEFT AND RIGHT.
Audience Polling: Computer application that enables voting and then collects and displays the results, simplifying decision-making among event participants.
Audio Frequency: Any frequency which humans hear, typically between a lower limit of about 12 hertz and an upper limit of about 20,000 hertz. This range of audio frequencies is also known as the “audio spectrum.”
Audio Monitor: 1) Speaker for listening to the playback of tapes or records. 2) A loudspeaker used for listening to the playback of tapes or records and by musicians to hear themselves or other musicians on stage. 3) Conference call.
Audioconference: A conference using only voice transmissions between two or more sites.
Audiovisual Aids; Audio and visual support for events, usually taking the form of film, slides, overhead projection, flip charts, sound equipment and blackboards.
Audiovisual: A/V. Equipment, materials, and teaching aids used in sound and visual presentations, such as television monitors, video, sound equipment, etc.
Audit; A methodical examination and review of records pertaining to an event. For instance, an independent verification of attendance figures submitted by an exhibition’s producers.
Audition; A tryout performance before producers, directors, casting directors or others for the purpose of obtaining a part in a production or a booking as a speaker.
Auditorium Lens; A projection lens used for long distances.
Auditorium Lights: See HOUSE LIGHTS.
Auditorium Set-Up: Seating arrangement where chairs are arranged in rows facing head table, stage or speaker. Variations are semicircular and V-shaped. See THEATER SET-UP.
Auditorium; Room for gathering an audience for speeches, concerts etc. Often used to name entire facilities, though properly applied only to the seated portion of the facility in which the audience is assembled. Typically a building named in this way will be an arena or theater class building.
Authorized Signatory: A person who is authorized to legally bind an individual or organization to a contract, to sign checks on behalf of an organization, or charge to an organization's master account.
Autograph Table: Traditionally, a table where a speaker autographs books after a speaking engagement. Many speakers currently use the term to mean the table at the back of the room from which they sell their products.
Automatic Advance: Feature on a slide projector which automatically inserts the next slide.
Auxiliary Aids and Services: 1) Contracted services (e.g. stewards, technicians, interpreters, tour guides, etc.) that provide support for an event. 2) The use of adaptive equipment or assistance to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities.
Auxiliary Business: Business that is brought to the facility because of, or in conjunction with, an event. See IN CONJUNCTION WITH.
Auxiliary Supply: System for providing power, lighting, air conditioning, heating, catering and emergency battery systems.
Average Room Rate: 1) Mathematical average of a series of sleeping room rates. 2) The total sleeping room revenue for a given period's occupied rooms divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period. In this instance the average is commonly referred to as a hotel's Average Daily Rate (ADR).
AVHRM: Association of Vacation Home Rental Managers.
Awards Banquet/Celebration: An event, usually formal, to honor outstanding performance.
Awning: A monopitch tent structure that is supported by a frame and is often foldable.
Axis: Imaginary center point.
B&B: 1) Bed and Breakfast. 2) Brandy and Benedictine.
b/g: Background, as in background music.
B/P: Bills Payable.
Baby Spot: 1) Small spotlight in a booth/stand, usually 15 watt. 2) Small spotlight in the ceiling of function rooms used to highlight decor, such as centerpieces.
Babysitting Facilities: Arrangements for care of children during a short absence of the parents.
Back Drape: A drape, curtain or fabric panel that provides a soft, colorful background for a speaker. The audience's attention will be zeroed on the speaker with enhanced concentration and retention.
Back Light: 1) A light source that illuminates any transparent or translucent material from behind. 2) A lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using image-magnification. 3) Lighting instrument used behind and above a presenter to give more depth and better image when video taping or using image-magnification.
Back of the House: A term used in hotels to refer to areas for staff only, as opposed to the front of the house.
Back Projection: Image projected on the back surface of a screen, which is placed between the viewer and the projector. See REAR PROJECTION.
Backbone: A permanently installed series of cable comprised of copper wire cable and/or fiber optic cable, utilized as the main thoroughfare in a building to transmit voice and data signals in or out of the facility.
Backdrop: Drapes, curtain, or fabric panels at the back of a stage, speaker’s table, or exhibit booth/stand.
Backline Equipment: Equipment required by musicians that is needed in order to perform at an engagement. This varies from artist to artist and often must be rented by the event organizer. Generally, it is everything a live band needs, such as amplifiers, apart from the musicians and their instruments.
Back-Lit Panels: Three-dimensional structure (or box) with lights placed behind a transparent image.
Backloader: Truck which loads from a rear-opening door.
Back-of-Room Sales: The act and process of selling books, tapes, and other products at the back of the room, usually immediately after a speech.
Backstage: Portion of the theater behind the main curtain including stage, dressing rooms, and wings.
Back-to-Back Booth/Stand: The standard exhibit configuration where booths/stands are placed in rows, back to back.
Back-to-Back: Travel or conference programs operating on a continuous or chronologically sequential basis so that one group arrives as another group departs or shortly thereafter.
Back-Up Facility: Substitute facility that will serve as an as a viable alternative if the original facility become unavailable or inadequate for its intended purpose.
Backwall Booth/Stand: An exhibit that is back to back with another exhibit or against a building wall. See PERIMETER BOOTH/STAND.
Backwall: 1) The back wall (either hardwall or draped) of a perimeter, booth/stand/exhibit, or inline. 2) Panel arrangement at rear of booth/stand area.
Badge: Identifying sign, tag or emblem worn by event participants. Sometimes called a nametag.
Baffle: Partition to control light, air, sound, or traffic flow.
Baguette: Long French bread; crunchy crust.
Baked Alaska: Brick ice cream on cake, covered with meringue and browned quickly in the oven. Sometimes served flaming in a waiter parade.
Baklava: Russian, Greek or Turkish pastry made of flaky dough, honey, and butter and chopped nuts.
Balance Sheet: A statement that indicates overall financial status by subtracting expenses from income.
Baling Wire: Thin gauged wire often used in display work for fastening or tying objects.
Ball Light: Stationary adjustable light found on older model exhibits.
Ball: Formal social gathering for dancing.
Ballast: A power supply used with arc or discharge lamps to control current through the bulb.
Bananas Foster: Dessert prepared with bananas, brown sugar, liqueur and served over vanilla ice cream. Often prepared flaming at table side.
Band Pass: Set of two filters that attenuate frequencies beyond the frequency limits of a given band of frequencies. The telephone, for example, is a band pass filter that eliminates low frequencies below about 300 hertz and high frequencies above about 5,000 hertz, causing the characteristic telephone sound most people are familiar with.
Band: Portion of the audio frequency spectrum in the same way that green is a portion of the visible frequency spectrum. The audio frequency spectrum covers a range of over 10 octaves.
Banding: Thin, flat wire used to hold cartons or crates together.
Bandwidth: The amount of information that can be transmitted in an information channel such as a telephone line, ISDN, or Ethernet. Higher bandwidth means that images and sound will load more quickly for use in videoconferences or on the Internet.
Banjo: Type of lightweight cloth used for backdrops.
Bank Draft: An order drawn for the payment of a specified sum of money through a bank to a particular person or entity.
Bank Guarantee Cash Deposit: Payable by the exhibitor to the forwarder, Customs agent, or official authorities in place of a temporary import bond to ensure the amount requested is the minimum amount of import duties and taxes that would be paid in case of final import.
Bank Maze: See STANCHIONS.
Bank Pin: Pin used for hanging booth/stand ID signs, alternative to S-HOOKS.
Bank Remittance: Money forwarded to a bank; may be by mail or electronic means.
Bank Transfer: Movement of funds between banks or from one bank account to another.
Banner Advertising: An advertisement on a Web site which allows user to “click through” to the advertiser’s Web site.
Banner: A suspended decorative or communicative panel, usually a temporary fabric or paper. Can be used as hanging signs.
Banquet Captain: Person in charge of banquet service at food functions. For small functions, also serves as maitre d. For larger functions, may be responsible for a specific area of the dining room.
Banquet Event Order: BEO. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Banquet Manager: A person in charge of banquet service.
Banquet Round: 1) Round table used for meal service; depending on the diameter, can comfortably seat up to 12 persons. A round for 8 is usually 60-inches in diameter and is also called a 5-footer. The 66-inch round is a newer table size and seats 8 to 10. A round for 10is usually 72-inches in diameter and is also called 6-footer.
Banquet Set-Up Manager: In charge of function room set up, over housemen.
Banquet Set-Up: 1) Seating arrangement where typically a grouping of rounds is set in such a way as to facilitate the serving of food, most often a hexagonal or square pattern. 2) Function-room set up and tear down. See HOUSEMAN.
Banquet: Formal, often ceremonial, dinner for a select group of people, often in honor of a particular person.
Bare Booth/Stand: Booth/stand with no services or facilities, meaning that these all have to be hired at an additional cost.
Bargaining Agent: Union recognized by the employer or designated by a government agency to act as the exclusive representative of employees in a bargaining unit.
Bargaining Unit: A group of employees designated by a government agency or accepted by the employer as constituting an appropriate unit for representation by a union.
Barn Door: Movable hinged flap used on stage lights to control light spill.
Barrier-Free: Absence of obstacles preventing handicapped persons from moving freely to all public areas within a building.
Barriers to Entry: Conditions that create difficulty for competitors to enter the market. For example, monopolies, cartels, copyrights, trademarks, patents, dedicated distribution channels and high initial investment requirements.
Barter: Trade in which merchandise or service is exchanged directly for other merchandise or service without the use of money. Barter can be an important means of trade with countries using currency that is not readily convertible.
Base Currency: Currency in which all official business transactions will take place.
Base Plate: Empty dinner plate used as a base for several courses and removed prior to the main course. Also called Set Plate. See Also UNDERLINER. Compare With SHOW PLATE.
Base Rate: The hourly rate or salary paid for a job performed. It does not include payments of overtime, incentives or other differentials.
Base Salary: The fixed amount paid to an employee on a regular basis, not including any gratuities, commissions, benefits or bonuses.
Base: 1) Steel floor support piece for upright post. 2) A stand on which something rests or is supported.
Batten: BATS. Lengths of pipe from which scenery, curtains, and lights can be hung.
Baud: Bits a modem can send or receive per second
BDI: Both Dates Inclusive.
Bead Board: A circuit board, which is most often carrying less than 24 volts of electricity.
Bead: Metal edge of lath or framing that finishes corners or openings and gives plaster finish continuous, smooth corners.
Beaded Screen: Type of screen with highly reflective surface used for front protection.
Beam: The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Béarnaise Sauce: A derivative of the hollandaise mother sauce. It is prepared by adding a tarragon reduction to hollandaise. Béarnaise must be kept on or near heat or it will separate and break down. Often served on Filet Mignon.
Bed and Breakfast: 1) A guesthouse, small hotel or private home that offers overnight accommodations and breakfast for paying guests. 2) Sleeping room rate includes breakfast. See CONTINENTAL PLAN (CP).
Bed Hook: The size, shape and sharpness of the image of the light as projected on a surface.
Bed Tax (Transient Occupancy Tax of TOT) - City or county tax added to the price of a hotel room.
Bed Tax: See TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX.
Beef Wellington: Tenderloin coated with liver pate and baked en Croute (flaky crust).
Beep: Audio signal used for cueing and editing.
Beeper: Small radio receiver that emits a beeping noise when signaled to alert the person carrying it.
Beignet: (ben yay) 1) French doughnut, square shaped, minus the hole, lavishly sprinkled with powdered sugar. 2) Foods dipped in batter and deep-fried.
Bell Captain: A hotel employee who supervises the work of staff whose primary responsibility is to carry luggage, run errands, etc. at a hotel or club. Not to be confused with Concierge.
Below-the-Line Expenses: Expenses for general business purposes not related directly to an event, common referred to as general overhead expenses such as office rent, health insurance, etc.
Benefits: 1) Entitlements made available in accordance with employment, such as a medical insurance policy, vacation, sick leave, etc. 2) Compensation or coverage from an insurance policy.
BEO: Banquet Event Order. A form most often used by hotels to provide details to personnel concerned with a specific food and beverage function or event room set-up.
Bermuda Plan: Hotel accommodations with full American-style breakfast included in the rate. See BED AND BREAKFAST. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, EUROPEAN PLAN, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Betacam/BetaSP: Common video format for presentation graphics, not compatible with VHS format. Commercial beta is used for broadcast quality video. See VHS Format.
Bible: See SPECIFICATIONS GUIDE.
Bid Document: The proposal, usually prepared in response to a request for proposals or sales lead, submitted by a destination or a facility, inviting an organization to hold its event n their venue. See REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS
Bid Manual/Specifications: Written document issued by an organization which contains requirements and conditions for future events, and solicits proposals for needed services from venues and other service providers. Often also includes primary selection and decision procedures. Same as REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP).
Bid: 1) A statement of what one will give or take in return for something else (a price); proposal. 2) Proposal submitted by a convention & visitor’s bureau and/or hotel(s) to an event organizer that includes defined dates and room blocks.
Bien Cuit: (ben kwee) Well done, as in steak cooked well done.
Bill of Lading: B/L. A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company under which freight is to be moved between specified points for a specified charge. Usually prepared by the shipper on forms issued by the carrier, it serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage, and a receipt of goods. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
Billing Instructions: Notice as to how charges for an event should be handled and to whom invoices should be addressed.
Billing Weight: Generally refers to airfreight and van line shipments. The billing weight is the number upon which freight charges are based. The billing weight will be the actual weight or the dimensional weight, whichever is greater.
Binding: Process of fastening pages of books, brochures, magazines together. See PERFECT BINDING. See Also SADDLE STITCH, SIDE-STITCH BINDING.
Bio: A slang term for biography.
Biographical Sheet: A profile, one-sheet or a short document that lists a speakers’ major credits and gives a brief history of his or her career. A biographical sheet is not a job resume or a vital. To remain true to its singular limit, a biographical sheet should be no longer than one page.
Bisque: (bisk) Soup thickened with a vegetable puree; usually a shellfish soup.
Bit: A unit of measurement that represents one figure or character of data. A bit is the smallest unit of storage in a computer. Bit multiples are called bytes.
Bitmap: A set of bits that defines a graphic image.
Black Light: Ultraviolet lighting that when applied causes phosphorescent paints to glow.
Black Tie Optional: Men can wear a tuxedo or dark business suit; for women a long, formal gown or a shorter, elegant dress or suit.
Black Tie: Required dress: dinner jacket, bow tie and cummerbund for the men and formal evening dress for the women. May include national dress. In the U.S. and Canada, Black Tie indicates Tuxedo. “Black tie optional” indicates that formal dress is preferred but not required. See FORMAL DRESS. See Also WHITE TIE.
Black-and-White: A black-and-white photograph of a speaker, sometimes referred to as a B&W. See GLOSSY.
Blackboard: Hard, smooth, usually dark surface used for drawing or writing with chalk. See CHALKBOARD. See Also MARKER BOARD.
Blanket License: Used particularly in regard to music licensing, a blanket license allows the music user unlimited access to the collectives' licensed repertory, for a contractual period of time, in exchange for a profit participation in the music user's economic growth. See Also ASCAP, BMI, & SESAC.
Blanket Wrap: Non-crated freight shipped via van line covered with protective blankets or padding.
Bleachers: Stand of tiered planks providing seating space for spectators. Can be permanent or temporary.
Bleed: Ink that extends beyond edges of printed page. Area beyond usable section of blowup or copy block that allows for trimming or wrapping.
Bleeding Edge: A level of technology more advanced than cutting edge or state-of-the-art. Bleeding edge equipment should be given extra attention, being careful to test and retest and not make adjustments between the rehearsal and the event.