Continental Plan: A room rate that includes a continental breakfast.
Continental U.S.: The contiguous 48 states, not including Alaska, Hawaii or any US Territories.
Contingency Plan: An alternative plan that may replace the original plan when circumstances change.
Continuing Education Unit: CEU. Requirement of many professional groups by which members must certify participation in formal educational programs designed to maintain their level of ability beyond their original certification date. CEUs are non-academic credit. One CEU is awarded for each 10 contact hours in an accredited program.
Continuing Education: Structured educational and training experiences for personal or professional development.
Continuity: Smooth flow of action and narration from scene to scene.
Contract Carrier: trucking Company that enters into a specific contract with a shipper to transport goods for an agreed-upon price. Contained within the contract are all the terms and conditions, liability, transit times, etc. The contract carrier is required to secure authorization from the DOT for such operations.
Contract: An agreement between two or more parties that creates in each party a duty to do or not do something and a right to performance of the other's duty or a remedy for the breach of the other's duty.
Contracting: A system in which all or part of the product or the work to be done is sublet to contractors.
Contractor Logistics Services: This is the transportation service division of the general show contractor. They handle/arrange for all modes of transportation (air, motor and van line), but the services are still executed by the traditional motor, van line and air carriers.
Contractor: An individual or organization providing services to a trade show and/or its exhibitors. May be Official (appointed by show management) or Independent (appointed by exhibitor). Typically refers to either a general service contractor or specialty contractor.
Contrast: Difference of intensity of color between light and dark areas of a picture, fabric, etc.
Contributed Paper: Written transcript provided after acceptance of the submitted abstract and usually the basis for a speech or demonstration.
Contributor: One who presents a paper, either verbally or in a visual form (e.g. a poster).
Control Track: Section of video tape which controls the speed of the tape.
Controlled Economy Countries: Countries whose governments strictly regulate the national economy.
Controversy Panel: To stimulate interest and debate, arrange for two or three views of a controversial issue to be presented.
Convener: Member of committee in charge of convening participants.
Convention and Visitors Bureau: CVB. Convention and visitor bureaus are not-for-profit organizations charged with representing a specific destination and helping the long-term development of communities through a travel and tourism strategy. Convention and visitor bureaus are usually membership organizations bringing together businesses that rely on tourism and events for revenue. For visitors, CVBs are like a key to the city. As an unbiased resource, CVBs can serve as a broker or an official point of contact for convention and event planners, tour operators and visitors. They assist planners with event preparation and encourage business travelers and visitors alike to visit local historic, cultural and recreational sites.
Convention and Visitors Bureau: These organizations are local tourism marketing organizations specializing in developing conventions, meetings, conferences and visitations to a city, county or region.
Convention Center: Facility that combines an exhibition space with a substantial number of smaller event spaces. The purpose of these buildings is to host trade shows, public shows, conventions, large food functions and other functions related to the convention industry. They may be purpose built or converted and municipally or privately owned.
Convention Rate: Rates assigned for a particular group. This is usually a discounted rate.
Convention Services Manager: CSM. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
Convention: An event where the primary activity of the attendees is to attend educational sessions, participate in meetings/discussions, socialize, or attend other organized events.
Conventions and Trade Shows: Major segment of travel industry business. Trade shows differ from conventions in that they have exhibit space that provides product exhibition and sales opportunities for suppliers, as well as information gathering and buying opportunities for customers.
Conversion Study: Research study to analyze whether advertising respondents actually were converted to travelers as a result of advertising and follow-up material.
Convertibility: A currency is usually described as convertible if the holder can exchange it freely for another currency.
Cookie: A file sent to a Web browser by a Web server that is used to record one's activities.
Co-op Advertising: Advertising funded by two or more destinations and /or suppliers.
Cooperative Marketing: Marketing programs involving two or more participating companies, institutions or organizations.
Cooperative Partner: An independent firm or organization which works with a tourism office by providing cash or in-kind contributions to expand the marketing impact of the tourism officeÕs program.
Coordinating Committee: Committee in charge of coordinating the organization of the event.
Coordination Fee: A charge for professional services.
Co-President: One of two or more persons appointed as president on an equal footing with the official president.
Co-Promotion: Joint participation in the costs and profits from an event.
Copy: 1) All original material being prepared for reproduction. 2) Reproduction of original material.
Copyfitting: Determining space required and type size for copy to fit allotted space.
Copyright: Federal laws that allow for the ownership of intellectual property (writings, art, music). Copy-written material cannot be used without the owner’s permission or the payment of royalty fees.
Coquilles St. Jacques: (co keel san jock) Scallops prepared in butter; served in a scalloped, shell-shaped ramekin.
Cordial: A liqueur usually served after dinner, e.g. Amaretto, Chambourd, Frangelica, etc., or a shell-shaped ramekin.
Corkage: The charge placed on beer, liquor, and wine brought into the facility but purchased elsewhere. The charge sometimes includes glassware, ice, and mixers.
Corner Booth/Stand: An exhibit space with exposure on at least two aisles. Some organizations charge premiums for corner booths/stands.
Cornucopia: 1) Pastry roll shaped like a horn, filled with whipped cream and nuts. 2) A large paper or plastic horn filled with fresh fruits spilling over onto the table. Also called a horn of plenty.
Corporate Exhibit: An institutional exhibit telling the story of the company without intentionally marketing the product or service.
Corporate Meeting: Gathering of employees or representatives of a commercial organization. Usually, attendance is required and travel, room and most meal expenses are paid for by the organization.
Corporate Planner: Meeting planner who works for a corporation.
Corporate Rate: Special rate for sleeping rooms or other goods and services that is made available to business travelers. These rates may vary by corporation, depending on the negotiated agreement.
Corporate Show: An exhibition produced by a corporation where exhibits are limited to products and services of that corporation or its marketing partners; no competitors participate.
Corporate Travel: The market segment comprised of groups or individuals that work for a given company and are traveling for business reasons at the company’s expense.
COS: Cash on Shipment.
Cost Center: An account (usually a number) to which expenses for a function or activity is charged.
Cost Charge per Square Meter/Foot: Basic charge for a particular unit of measurement.
Cost Control: Process of maintaining levels of expenditure within the budget.
Cost of Goods: The direct costs involved in producing a product or service which usually includes labor and materials.
Cost of Sales: The cost of goods plus the expenses involved in selling and delivering the product or service.
Cost Plus: Basic charges for a service plus the markup or margin to ensure margin and profit for service provider.
Costing: Process of itemizing and calculating all costs the tour operator will pay on a given tour. Usually the function of the operations manager.
Costumer: 1) Hat and coat rack. 2) A person or organization that makes, sells, or rents costumes.
Couchette: Sleeping berth in a day/night compartment on a European train.
Council: Group of members responsible for establishing and enforcing the rules and regulations.
Count: 1) Total number of individuals in attendance at a function or event for a given period. 2) Total number of exhibitors for a given period.
Counter: A working cabinet for display, demonstration, or registration.
Countermount: Technique for mounting material to rear of panel equal to weight and consistency to face mounted material. This prevents warping.
Countersink: Technique of recessing heads of screws and nails below the surface.
Countervailing Duty: An extra duty imposed by the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to offset export grants, bounties, or subsidies paid to foreign suppliers in certain countries by the governments of those countries as an incentive to exports.
Country of Origin: Denotes country of parental nationality.
Coupon: Ticket which travelers exchange for prepaid services such as accommodations, meals and tours.
Courier: European term for a travel professional who supervises arrival details and escorts tours.
Cover Charge: A fee, usually a flat amount per person, charged to patrons to cover the cost of music and entertainment.
Cover Plate: A protective, removable panel used with self-contained exhibits in transit.
Cover Stock: Heavy-weight paper used for covers of brochures.
Cover: 1) Table setting for one person. 2) Actual number of meals, or servings, served at a food function. 3) Dome placed over a plate, used to keep food warm/cold and measure the number of meals served at a food function.
Cover: Each diner at a restaurant.
Covered Area: Any area that covers an exhibit space and prevents the building fire sprinkler from discharging water unobstructed to the floor. This includes single story exhibits with ceilings, upper deck exhibits, roofs, overhead lighting installations and any material hanging or installed overhead that is not recognized as acceptable under fire sprinkler systems fire codes.
Covers: Actual number of meals served at a catered meal function or in a restaurant.
CPAE: Council of Peers Award for Excellence; inductee into the CPAE Speaker Hall of Fame.
CPCE: Certified Professional Catering Executive. A certification program offered by the National Association of Catering Executives (NACE).
CR: Carrier's Risk.
Craft Union: A labor organization, the membership in which is restricted to individuals possessing or working at a specific skill or trade (e.g. diemaking, carpentry, or plumbing).
Crafting List: Names the content of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Craftsperson: A skilled individual who provides actual services on the show floor. Usually a unionized worker.
Crate: Wooden box for packing and shipping exhibits.
Crated Exhibit: An exhibit that is transported from event to event in crates (small to huge wooden boxes). Crates make handling the exhibit easier, and minimize damage during material handling. In most cases, individual pieces are jigged in place within the crates.
Crating List: Names the contents of what is enclosed inside a crate (e.g. exhibit pieces, carpet, etc.).
Crawl: Text moving horizontally across the bottom of a video screen.
Credentials Committee: Committee formed to verify that individuals have the necessary qualifications to attend a meeting or become a member of an association.
Credit Card Badge: A lead retrieval method using embossed plastic cards similar to credit cards.
Credit Risk Insurance: Insurance designed to cover risks of nonpayment for delivered goods.
Credit: 1) An item entered on creditor side of an account (opposite of “debit”). 2) To add one sum to another.
Credits: Names of persons who either created or performed in a program.
Crème Brûlée: Pudding of cornstarch, eggs, milk, sugar and whipped cream served in a ramekin.
Crêpe: (crayp) Very thin pancake, used to roll up anything from meat to dessert.
Crescent-Round Set-Up: Uses 60-, 66- or 72-inch (152-, 168- and 183-centimeter) diameter rounds with seating on two thirds to three quarters of the table and no seating with its back to the speaker. Used for banquet-to-meeting or meeting-to-banquet quick set.
Crew: Stagehands, technicians, truck loaders, etc.; responsible for the technical set-up of an event.
Croissant: (kwa sant) Crescent shaped French bread that is very tender, due to a lot of butter.
Crop Mark: Indication on original art or photo defining area that is to be reproduced.
Crop: To use less than the full frame area of a photograph or less than the full area of art work.
Crosby: A clamp connector used with cables.
Cross Aisle: An aisle at a right angle, or perpendicular, to a main aisle.
Cross Bar: Rod used in draping or as a support brace.
Cross Dissolve: Gradual changing of one picture or sound or color to another.
Cross Face: Smooth change from one color or image to another.
Cross Fade: Change from one scene to another in which visual images are blended together and one image fades out as another fades in.
Crosstalk: Undesired sound from radio devices infringing upon the sound system, typically heard as bleed-over between left and right stereo speakers, or as leakage of high-frequency sound between busses or circuits in audio mixers, microphone cable snakes and multiple circuit audio signal wiring.
Cru: Raw, uncooked.
Crudités: 1) Pieces of raw vegetables served as hor d’oeuvres, often with dip. 2) Raw vegetable salad, usually julienne cut.
Crumber: An implement used to clean the crumbs from in front of the guest between dinner and dessert.
CSEP: Certified Special Event Professional; an earned designation from the International Special Events Society (ISES).
CSM: Convention Services Manager. Professional at a hotel, convention center or convention bureau who is responsible for event operations management on all levels.
CSP: Certified Speaking Professional; an earned designation from the National Speakers Association (NSA).
CTC: Certified Travel Counselor.
CTLO: Constructive Total Loss Only.
CTP: Certified Travel Professional.
CTRLA: Car and Truck Rental and Leasing Association.
CTSM: Certified Trade Show Marketer.
Cube Taps: Three way plugs for combining electrical cords. (Note: cube taps are illegal by fire code in some facilities.)
Cube: Area occupied by an exhibit within a trailer, determined by multiplying the exhibit’s length, times width, times height.
Cubic Content: The use of exhibit properties in the airspace over the entire leased area above a height of eight feet or more.
Cue Card: Off-stage card that displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines.
Cue Channel: Portion of the audio signal-carrying channels in a system that is used to allow musicians to hear other performers or portion of the ensemble sound in order to match pitch or tempo.
Cue: Visual or aural signal to elicit response or action.
Cueing: 1) Assigning cue numbers to various elements of a production. 2) Setting audio tape or video film at a specific point.
Cultural Services: A service concerned with organizing activities which are mainly related to the artistic and intellectual side of civilization.
Currant: Small piquant berry used for jellies, or dried and used like raisins.
Current Assets: Assets that can be converted quickly to cash. e.g. marketable securities, notes, inventories, account receivables.
Current Liabilities: All debts incurred in the normal day-to-day business and due within one calendar year.
Curriculum Vita: A document similar to a resume and is often referred to as a “vita.” It highlights a speaker’s education and key jobs held. A speaker in the academic community usually uses a curriculum vita.
Custom Exhibit: An exhibit which is unique to the specific requirements of the user.
Custom Fabricated Exhibit: An exhibit that is individually designed and built with a wide range of materials.
Custom House: An individual or firm licensed to enter and clear goods through customs.
Custom Menu: Menu specifically created for a client.
Customized Tour: A TOUR designed to fit the specific needs of a particular target audience.
Customs Broker: An individual or company which provides customs clearing services to shippers of goods to and from another country. Licensing and requirements vary from country to country. In the United States, a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law.
Customs: 1) The governmental authorities designated to collect duties levied by a country on imports and exports. The term also applies to the procedures involved in such collection. 2) Practices common to many of a particular group.
Cut & Lay: Installation of carpet other than normal booth/stand or aisle size.
Cut: 1) Instantaneous change from one scene to another without a fade-in or fade-out. 2) Signal to interrupt or cancel.
Cutline: Text identifying a photograph; caption.
Cut-Off Date: Designated date when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. The date is typically three to four weeks before the event.
Cut-Off Time: A specific point in time at which the exhibition contractor will cease (for the day) all unloading or loading activities. In transportation environment this refers to the specific time a shipment must be tendered to a carrier in order to receive service that day. For example, a flight that departs at 10:00 p.m. may have a cargo cut-off time of 7:00 p.m.
Cut-Off Time: Hour when a non-guaranteed reservation must be filled or it may be cancelled.
Cutting Sheet: Drawings made by carpentry shops, detailing size and shape of raw material to be cut.
CVA: Convention & Visitors Authority.
CWT: Abbreviation for "hundred weight." This is the unit of measure used in drayage and freight shipments.
Cycles: The amount of "movement" in electrical current. International standard is 50 cycles; in U.S., 60 cycles.
Cyclorama: 1) Platforms of varying heights used together to create a stage, such as the rows of steps a choral group would use during a performance. See DAIS. 2) Stage background scene giving illusion or depth. Also called CYC.
D/B/A: Doing Business As
DA: Distribution Amplifier. Amplifier which increases the amplitude of a signal in a line in order to distribute it to multiple points of use.
Daily Newsletter: Daily information sheet for participants during event.
Dais: Raised platform usually above the floor of a hall or large room.
Damage Clause: Part of a contract dealing with procedures, penalties, and rights of the party causing damages.
Damask: Woven silk or linen fabric used for napery (napkins and tablecloths).
Dance Floor: Area for dancing, can be carpeted when not used for dancing. Portable dance floors come in 3 foot x 3 foot sections.
Dark: A day on which a facility or hall has no events or performances booked. Monday is the traditional dark day for theaters.
DAT: Digital Audio Tape
Data Projector: A self-contained unit with a LCD panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up.
Database: A collection of all information on all prospects (attendees and exhibitors).
Date Draft: A draft document, such as a contract, which matures a specified number of days after the date it is issued, without regard to the date of acceptance.
Date Protection: A guarantee that the dates an event organizer has selected for an event in a specific facility are reserved for that organizer.
Day Glo: Trademarked name for iridescent paints or inks that glow.
Dead Areas: Areas where sound is muted or absent.
Dead End Flight: Last leg of a flight.
Dead Time: Time during which an employee is unable to work due to factors beyond his or her control and for which he is paid.
Debate: A discussion which takes place within a meeting, a public or private sitting or in one of the various types of assembly or meeting.
Debt Service: Regular payments required to keep a loan current.
Declared Value: Shipper's stated value of entire shipment in terms of dollars.
Décor: Props, lighting, and other elements used to create a theme or ambiance. Décor is used to enhance an event with elements including but not limited to carpet, pipe and drape, stage props, customized lighting, linens, tablescapes, skirting, ceiling treatments, stage sets, projection images, special effects or sound effects.
Decorating: Dressing up an area with carpet, draping, plants, etc.
Decorator: An individual or company providing installation & dismantle and booth/stand and hall dressing services for a trade show and/or its exhibitors. Decorator services may be provided by carpenters, sign painters or others depending upon union jurisdiction. Term applies to both contractor and skilled craftsperson.
Deferred Air Freight: Long haul air freight that waits for available cargo space (usually 1 to 2 days) at a reduced rate.
Deferred Airfreight/Deferred Service: Airfreight that can wait for available cargo space because of low delivery priority. Usually a three- to five-day service that moves at a reduced cost.
Deferred Rebate: A deferred rebate is the return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier to a shipper, in exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier over a specified period of time (usually 6 months). Payment of the rebate is deferred for a further similar period during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to the rebating carrier. The shipper thus earns a further rebate which will not, however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage with the carrier. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier.
Definite Booking: Space reservations confirmed in writing.
Delegate Card: Admission card confirming a booking and registration.
Delegate: 1) Person who attends an event primarily to visit exhibits or attend meetings and/or conference sessions. This excludes exhibitors, media, speakers, and companions. 2) Registered meeting participant. 3) Voting representative at a meeting.
Demi Tasse: Small cup of coffee, used for espresso.
Demi-Pension: A rate inclusive of breakfast and dinner, in addition to the room. In the U.S. and Canada it is called MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN (MAP), which means breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, EUROPEAN PLAN.
Demographics: Characteristics that help create a profile of exhibitors and attendees. May include company location, job function, purchase budget, purchase intentions.
Demonstration: 1) The act of showing how to do something. 2) A group of individuals organized to picket or protest against a group using placards, literature, songs, shouts and, sometimes, marches or sit-ins.
Demonstrator: Person hired to work in a booth/stand demonstrating or explaining products.
Denied Boarding Compensation: Refund of airfare or payment to passenger when airline fails to honor a confirmed reservation within two hours of scheduled departure.
Density: Pounds per cubic foot, determined by mathematical formula where the weight of an article or shipment is divided by the cubic feet it occupies.
Departure Date: Date when majority of event participants check out of a facility.
Departure Tax: Fee collected from traveler by host country at time of departure.
Deposit: An advanced partial payment to secure product or service.
Depreciation: The gradual erosion of the usability and value (possibly due to obsolescence) of an organization's fixed assets. In some cases depreciation can be declared as a tax deduction.
Design: Artist’s concept or visualization of how a printed piece should look.
Desktop Publishing: Using a personal computer to prepare materials for printing.
Desktop Videoconferencing: DVD. Videoconferencing on a personal computer.
Destination City: A city which in and of itself is an attraction, e.g. Orlando or San Francisco.
Destination Control Statement: Any of various statements which the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments and which specify the destinations for which the shipment has been authorized. Also Called ANTIDIVERSION CLAUSE.
Destination Management Company: DMC. A professional services company possessing extensive local knowledge, expertise and resources, specializing in the design and implementation of events, activities, tours, transportation and program logistics. Depending on the company and the staff specialists in the company, they offer, but are not limited to, the following: creative proposals for special events within the meeting; guest tours; VIP amenities and transportation; shuttle services; staffing within convention centers and hotels; teambuilding, golf outings and other activities; entertainment, including sound and lighting; décor and theme development; ancillary meetings and management professionals; and, advance meetings and onsite registration services and housing.
Destination Manager: Local on-site coordinator.
Destination Marketing Organization: Local tourism marketing organizations, such as convention and visitors bureaus or chambers of commerce.
Destination Marketing: Marketing a city, state, country, area or region to consumers and trade.
Destination: A city, area or country which can be marketed to groups or individuals as a place to visit or hold an event.
Detail Drawing: Drawing showing method of construction, plan views, elevations, floor ports, drains, etc.
Dialogue: Discussion of ideas and opinions.
Die Cut: Method of producing repetitive cutout shapes in quantity.
Diffuser: An open grid or a solid translucent plastic to soften or conceal light sources.
Digital Subscriber Line: DSL. Provides high-speed access to the Internet via telephone lines. DSL service requires a DSL modem.
Digital Video: Capture, manipulation and storage of video in digital format on a computer. Can be displayed on a computer as part of a graphic presentation.
Dimensional Weight: Generally refers to air-freight and van line shipments. Invoices are calculated with two weights, actual and dimensional. The dimensional weight is based upon the volume of the shipment. The billing weight is the larger of the two.
Dimmer Board: A combination of switches, dimmer plates and fuses for controlling light. See SWITCHBOARD.
Dimmer: A device to control light intensity. See RHEOSTAT.
Dine Around: Use of a number of restaurants in a destination with reservations and billing arrangements to one particular client.
Dinner: Evening meal for a group; not usually ceremonial.
Direct Billing: Accounts receivable made available to individuals or firms with established credit.
Direct Flight: Flight between two points on the same aircraft. There may be stops, but no plane changes.
Direct Lighting: The aiming of a fixture directly at the object/area to be illuminated.
Direct Mail: A marketing technique in which material is mailed directly to individuals in a target audience.
Direct Sales Method: Selling direct to the end user with promotional efforts using advertising, direct mail or telephone sales.
Direct Spending: All expenditures associated with an event that flow into the host destination’s local economy. Direct spending includes attendee spending, exhibitor spending and event organizer spending. See Also ECONOMIC IMPACT, INDIRECT SPENDING, & INDUCED SPENDING.
Directional Signs: Signs directing attendees to an exhibit, event or special area.
Directory: 1) The printed document passed out to event attendees that includes a list of conference sessions, exhibitor descriptions, a floor plan and other information. 2) An alphabetized list of members with contact information.
Disability: A physical or mental impairment that limits normal life functions.
Discounted Fare: Negotiated air fare for convention, trade show, meeting, group and corporate travel.
Discover America: Theme used by the Travel Industry Association and its marketing partners to market travel within the United States.
Discussion Form: Paper containing an application to put a question during a conference session to a particular speaker on a specific subject; usually submitted in advance of the session.
Discussion Group: 1) A group of participants in a separate debate within some types of meetings. Similar to a working group but with no expectation of reports or papers. 2) A threaded bulletin board where participants can post messages under the heading of a particular topic and responses are grouped by topic or thread. Groups are asynchronous, not occurring in real-time.
Discussion Leader: Person who introduces topic of discussion and controls the discussion in the group. Moderator.
Dishonored Reservation: If a hotel accepts a reservation but can't provide a room, the hotel has breached the contract and the injured guest is owed damages. The usual term is for the guest to be compensated for the first night to stay at the second hotel and usually reimbursement for transportation between the hotel and the second hotel. See HOTEL RESERVATION.
Dismantle: 1) Take-down and removal of exhibits. 2) To take apart.
Dismantling Deadline: The time and day by which booths/stands have to be dismantled and removed from an exhibition area.
Dispatcher: Person responsible for scheduling and routing freight, labor, shuttle busses, etc.
Display Builder: Company or person that fabricates displays.
Display Case: See SHOWCASE.
Display Material: The material exhibited by the various exhibitors. Such material is usually insured or has its value stated in writing for insurance purposes.
Display Place: Exhibit booth/stand.
Display Rules & Regulations: A set of specifications for exhibit construction endorsed by all major exhibit industry associations. Also refers to the individual additional rules which may be adopted by event management.
Display: An arrangement of products or informational material.
Dispute: A conflict or difference of opinion between an employer and a union or between an employer and employees over some phase of their relationship. Usually refers to a serious controversy that threatens or causes a work stoppage or that is submitted to an arbitrator or government agency for settlement.
Dissolve Unit: Device that activates fade-out and fade-in of slides from one projector to another.
Dissolve: See CROSS FADE.
Distance Learning: A type of education where students work on their own at home or from an office, and communicate with faculty and other students via email, electronic forums, chat, web conferencing and other forms of online communication. Includes correspondence courses, audio, video and internet delivery. Meeting and event Web sites can facilitate distance learning by offering online educational programs.
Distribution Channel: The path a product follows to be delivered to the end user. This may be through distributors, retail outlets, self service outlets, vending machines, telephone sales, direct mail sales, etc.
Distributor Show: An exhibition produced by a distributor at which exhibitors are the manufacturers of products sold by the distributor and attendees are the distributor's customers. See EXHIBITION. See Also TRADE SHOW.
Distributor: An enterprise that purchases products for resale to their customers who are usually retail outlets. The distributor expects to receive a significant price discount for providing the distribution service.
Divider: Movable barrier that partitions a large area into smaller areas. May be sound resistant, but not necessarily sound proof. See AIR WALL. See Also MOVABLE WALL, PARTITION.
DMC Consortium: National and/or international alliances of destination management companies who form select communities for the purpose of sharing collective efforts for business sharing, education, ethics and destination management industry monitoring.
DMC: Destination Management Company. See Also DESTINATION MANAGEMENT COMPANY.
DMCP: Destination Management Certified Professional. An accreditation offered by the Association of Destination Management Executives (ADME).
Docent: Tour guide in a museum, educational facility or art gallery.
Dock Receipt: A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier's dock or warehouse facilities. When delivery of a foreign shipment is completed, the dock receipt is surrendered to the vessel operator or his agent and serves as the basis for the preparation of the OCEAN BILL OF LADING. See WAREHOUSE RECEIPT.
Dock Usage: Instructions on the allotment of a loading dock’s space and time required for loading and unloading of trucks for an event. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Dock: A place where freight is loaded onto, and taken from, vessels or vehicles.
Document Sharing: A feature of many videoconference systems that allows participants at each conference site to view and edit the same document.
Dog Bone: A 1’ five wire cord that is used to help transfer high voltage power to 120 volt power on the BCP.
Dog House: An electrical outlet that will accommodate 6 plugs. See SEX (SIX) BOX.
Dolly: Any of several kinds of low, flat, wheeled frames for transporting heavy objects.
Dolma: Stuffed grape leaves.
Domestic Beer/Wine: Beer or wine produced in the country where it is served.
Donation: Sum of money or item of value received as a gift or contribution.
DOS: Director of Sales.
DOT: Department of Transportation.
DOT: Department of Transportation. In the United States, on the national level, the Federal Department of Transportation is a government agency responsible for safety, interstate highways and interstate commerce matters.
Double Bed: Bed measuring 53-by-75 inches (135-by-191 centimeters).
Double Booking: 1) Reserving space for two groups to use the same space at the same time and neither can be fully accommodated as contracted. 2) An organization reserving space in more than one venue for the same event. 3) Two or more reservations made for the same traveler for the same dates. Can be canceled by the airlines if discovered as they consider this a violation of their ticketing rules.
Double Cloth: Use of two tablecloths on a banquet table for decorative purposes, to muffle sound, or to attach skirting to. Usually two different colors are used. See OVERLAY.
Double Decker: Two-storied exhibit. See MULTI-STORY EXHIBIT.
Double Lock: Two locks, one a dead bolt, on a door for extra security.
Double Room Rate: The price per person for a sleeping room to be shared with another person.
Double Room: A sleeping room occupied by two persons. The room may have one or more beds of any type in it. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double Width: Two tables placed together, allowing extra room in a BOARDROOM SET-UP.
Double: A guestroom assigned to two people.
Double-Double Room: A sleeping room with two beds that is occupied by two persons. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Double-Faced Panel: A panel of wood or other material that is finished, or not rough, on both sides.
Double-Faced Tape: Tape used to adhere carpet to floor, signs, or panels.
Doubletime: Premium pay, which is double the base rate of hourly wage.
Doubling: Playing, by musicians, of more than one instrument during an engagement.
Downgrade: To move to a lesser accommodation or class of service.
Downlighting: The use of lighting instruments to light down onto objects below.
Downline Space: On a multi-leg itinerary, the flights following first flight.
Downlink: The station which receives data transmissions from a communications satellite.
Download: Transfer a file from a host computer to your computer.
Downstage: Front of the stage, closest to the audience.
Draft: An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named payee at a fixed or determinable future date.
Drain Line: Pipe that drains water. Usually used on the exhibit floor for displays that require water.
Dram Shop Laws: In the United States, a legal term for laws covering the liability of people serving alcoholic beverages. Under dram shop laws, a party injured by an intoxicated person can sue establishments contributing to that person’s intoxication. Many dram shop laws also cover serving alcohol to a minor.
Draped Booth/Stand: A booth/stand made up of back wall and sidewall of pipe and drape (typically provided by management).
Draper: Person who installs drapes, pleats, and special decor.
Drapery: Decoratively arranged tablecloths or skirting on the front of head tables and around reception and buffet tables.
Drapes: Decorative material, usually hung on pipe frames to partition an area, adorn a room, or provide privacy.
Draping: Decorating with drapes.
Drawback: A refund of duties paid on imported goods that are provided at the time of their re-exportation.
Drayage Charge: The cost of moving exhibit materials within the confines of the exhibit hall, based on weight. This charge is calculated in 100-pound units, or hundredweight, abbreviated cwt. (There is usually a minimum charge for all drayage.)
Drayage Contractor: Company responsible for handling exhibit materials.
Drayage Form: Form for exhibitor requesting handling of materials.
Drayage: Delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to an assigned exhibit space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for recreating, and delivering materials back to dock for carrier loading.
Drayer: Official event handler designated to move exhibits from truck to dock to booth space. Usually handled by general service contractor.
Dress Casual: Collared shirts, sweaters, turtlenecks, blazers and slacks, such as khakis or corduroys for men; casual dresses or slacks, sweaters and blouses for women. No shorts, jeans, t-shirts, flip flops, etc. See FRIDAY CASUAL.
Dress Code: Required or suggested acceptable manner or style of dress for an occasion or event.
Dress: 1) Clothing worn by talent. 2) Dress rehearsal; final camera rehearsal. 3) Set dressing; necessary set properties. 4) To neatly arrange cables lying on the floor.
Dressed Lumber: Term referring to lumber that has been sanded or smoothed down to less than its rough dimensions.
Dressing the Exhibit: Placing graphics, plants, literature and applying any finishing touches to the display.
Dressing: 1) Sauce for salads; stuffing in poultry. 2) Decor, costumes.
Drive-In Instructions: Directions informing a venue or facility of the number of event participants expected to travel by automobile an event, in order to ensure adequate parking and bell staffing. This information should be included in the specifications guide for an event.
Driver: Another name for loudspeaker; the word “driver” is used by non-engineers to designate a compression driver like those used to drive horns for acoustic amplification and directional control of sound.
Drop Slot: Opening in countertop to receive cards.
Drop Time: The time at which passengers have been dropped off and vehicle service ends.
Drop: Large, painted piece of material used for stage background.
Drop-Off Food: Self-service hot and/or cold foods are prepared at one location and then delivered to the event site at a different location.
Dropout: Momentary loss of recorded audio or video signal during playback, due to imperfections in the tape.
Dry Lease: Rental of a plane without crew, supplies, fuel, and maintenance service.
Dry Run: Rehearsal or trial run-through of program.
Dry Snacks: Finger foods, such as peanuts, pretzels, potato chips, and corn chips, usually served at receptions.
Dry: Audio signal or sound without reverberation. An audio signal or sound with reverb is called “wet.”
DSL: Digital subscriber line. Brings high bandwidth via copper phone lines.
DSM: District Sales Manager.
DT Labor: Work performed on overtime and charged at twice the published rate.
du Jour: Of the day, e.g. soup du jour or vegetable du jour.
Dual Podiums: Placing two identical podiums at stage right and stage left, so that they can be used with multiple speakers or presenters. See PODIUM. See Also LECTERN.
Dual Projection: The projection of two images at a time using two separate projectors and two screens.
Dual Set-Up: Arrangement of duplicate set-ups in two or more different locations.
Dualing Menus: Split (dual) entrées, e.g. Surf & Turf.
Dub: 1) to transfer recorded sound from one unit to another. 2) Copy of a recording or Tape.
Duchess Potatoes: Potatoes mashed with eggs and squeezed through a pastry tube. Can be served as a side dish, or used to pipe decoration around a serving platter.
Duct Tape: Tape used to adhere carpet edges to floor or to cover wires and cables on a carpet. See CARPET TAPE. See Also GAFFER'S TAPE.
Dummy: Mock-up of printed pieces as they should appear in the final form, made up of the correct size and number of pages, showing the position of the various text elements and illustrations.
Dump: See BONEYARD.
Duo: Two performers or musicians.
Duoserve Property: A hotel property in which logistics are handled by the convention services manager (CSM), with catering handled by a separate manager.
Duotone: Photograph prepared for two-color reproduction.
Dupe: Duplicate. Copy of film or tape which has been printed from the original copy.
Duplex Outlet: Double electrical outlet.
Duty Roster: List outlining hourly schedules and responsibilities of all event staff members.
Duty: 1) Fee levied on imported and exported goods. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties). 2) Actions required by one's occupation. See AD VALOREM TAX.
Duty-Free Imports: Item amounts and categories specified by a government that are free of tax or duty charges when brought into the country.
Duvetyne: A woven fabric with a nap, similar to Commando Cloth, but lighter and with a finer nap. A substitute for velour, most often used for masking drapes. Often misspelled as duvatyne, duventyne, and duvetine.
DVC: Desktop videoconferencing.
DVD: Digital Video Disk - holds more data than a CD Disk.
Dye Transfer: Technique of producing full color, accurate color prints.
Dynamic Range: Difference, in decibels, between the loudest and the quietest passages in a musical or audio program. Also, the difference between the maximum signal level that can be produced under nominal operating distortion levels by an electronic circuit, and that circuit’s obnoxious noise level (called the “noise floor”).
E&O Insurance: Errors and Omissions Insurance. See ERRORS AND OMISSIONS INSURANCE.
E&OK: Errors and Omissions Excepted.
EAC: Exhibitor Appointed Contractor. Any company other than the designated "official" contractor providing a service to an exhibitor.
EAC: Exhibitor-Appointed Carrier. See EXHIBITOR-APPOINTED CARRIER.
EAON: Except As Otherwise Noted.
Early Arrival: 1) To reach your destination before the appointed date or time. 2) When a hotel guest with a confirmed reservation requests to check in to his/her room prior to the scheduled date and/or check-in time. 3) Arrival prior to arrival of the majority of the group.
Early Registration: Registration received before a pre-definite date, usually offering a lower fee.
Early-Out: A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called UNDER-STAY, UNEXPECTED DEPARTURE. Compare With OVERSTAY.
Easel: Three-or four-legged stand with a rack used to display cork board, magnetic board, posters, signs, charts, or other objects.
EBITDA: Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. A measure of an enterprise’s net income.
EC: European Community.
ECB: Event-Contracted Block. See also EVENT-CONTRACTED BLOCK.
Echo Buss: Typically, a dedicated audio channel within an audio mixing console, through which a signal intended to be sent or received to or from an echo or reverberation device (e.g. an echo chamber) is routed.
Echo: Any or all audibly discrete delayed sound images. In contrast, reverberation produces a wash of sound, with no discrete echoes.
Éclair: (ee clare) Oblong puff pastry filled with custard or whipped cream and topped with chocolate.
e-Commerce: 1) Electronic commerce. 2) Buying and selling products and services while online over the internet.
Economic Impact (Total): The total value of an event. Events generate secondary spending (indirect and induced) on the host destination’s local economy over and above the original direct spending. These secondary impacts, when combined with the original direct spending, result in the total economic impact of an event. See Also DIRECT SPENDING, INDIRECT SPENDING, & INDUCED SPENDING.
Economic Multiplier: Total economic impact divided by direct spending. See Also ECONOMIC IMPACT, DIRECT SPENDING.
ECU: European Currency Unit. Currency unit of the European Community.
EDAC: Exhibit Display Association of Canada.
EDC: Exhibitor Designated Contractor. See EAC.
Edge Light: Technique of illuminating engraved lines in glass or plastic by transmitting light through edge of material.
Editing: Correcting and/or improving final copy before typesetting.
EDPA: Exhibit Designers and Producers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Educational Conference Center: Facility that is affiliated with a campus or university.
Educational Meeting: An event held for the purpose of teaching information.
Educational Program: Substantive instructional content at an event.
Educational Session: Time period during which information or instruction is presented.
Educational Visit: Tour of place or location by a group of individuals with a common interest in the subject matter visited ( i.e., work place or manufacturing plant). See STUDY MISSION.
EE: Errors Excepted.
Effects Projector: Device combining theatrical projector with variable throw, and rotating decorated lens; used to project ripples, waves, clouds, etc.
Effects: Effects devices can be broadly classified as anything that changes the sound of signals passing through them.
Efficiency: 1) Sleeping room at a housing facility with food preparation amenities. 2) The ratio of input and output usually expressed in a percent. For example, a loudspeaker, which produces 8 acoustic watts when fed 100 electrical watts, is 8% efficient.
EFX: Special Effects.
Egg Foo Yung: Chinese pancake which includes eggs, bean sprouts, subgum (mushrooms) and often either pork, shrimp or chicken.
Eggcrate: Construction technique of joining two materials by notching both and inserting slots into each other.
Eggplant: A member of the nightshade family, related to the potato and tomato, actually a berry. There are many varieties and colors from dark purple to white, and range from 2 to 12 inches and from oblong to round. The most common in the U.S. is the large, pear-shape variety with a smooth, glossy, dark purple skin. Japanese or Asian eggplants are very narrow and range in color from solid purple to striated shade. Italian or baby eggplant looks like a miniature version of the common large variety, is more delicate skin and flesh.
Eggs Benedict: Poached eggs on an English muffin, with Canadian bacon (or ham) and hollandaise sauce. This item holds well in hot boxes.
e-Key: Key used to prevent a guest from entering his/her room.
e-Learning: The use of an electronically based network or Internet technology to design, deliver, select and extend learning. Included in this category are TV and satellite broadcasts, Internet delivered video-on-demand, audio-on demand, and any other computer-based form of learning and training.
Electric Eye: A device that creates a light beam, the interruption of which will activate a relay switch for control of a desired animation.
Electric Pointer: Laser device which a speaker uses to cast an illuminated spot on the wall, blackboard, screen, etc., to draw attention to a particular feature.
Electrical Contractor: Person or company contracted by event management to provide electrical services to exhibitors.
Electrician: A technician trained in the installation, operation and dismantling of all electrical equipment.
Electronic Blackboard: System for sending handwriting, and hand-drawn graphics, over a telephone line. The sender may use either a light pen or a digitizing tablet, and the appropriate image will appear on a television monitor at the remote location.
Electronic Crossover: See ACTIVE CROSSOVER.
Electronic Editing: Process by which program elements are inserted and assembled on medium without physically altering the medium, e.g. video tape, CD Roms.
Electronic Payment: Payment by means of electronic funds transfer, e.g. using a credit card at a point-of-sale terminal.
Electronic Pour: System of dispensing exact amounts of liquor per drink.
Electronic Whiteboard: A system of controlling multimedia presentations by displaying computer generated images onto a white board. The board copies all information written or taped onto it, and saves, publishes or prints out the notes.
Elevated Table: Table raised to counter height. See TUXEDO TABLE. See Also COCKTAIL TABLE.
Elevation: 1) Height. 2) Front and side views of a scaled drawing.
Ellipsoidal Spotlight: Type of adjustable spotlight formerly known as a klieg light. It is used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See LEKO. See Also LECTERN.
Email Alert: See CONFERENCE REMINDER.
Email Newsletter: A newsletter distributed to a subscriber list via email. Often referred to as “opt-in” or permission marketing because subscribers choose to receive the information.
Embedding: Technique of capturing object in Lucite or other materials.
Embedment: Casting in plastic. Can be done with photos and translites, or transparencies.
Embossing: Impressing letters or artwork in relief. Blind embossing is an inkless impression on blank paper.
Emcee: The master of ceremonies at a banquet or similar event. Sometimes spelled MC.
Emergency Action Plan: Procedures about how to react and respond to an emergency situation, such as medical emergencies, fire and bomb threats.
Emergency Exit: Door, clear of obstructions, designed for egress in the event of fire or panic.
Emergency Medical Plan: A formalized plan of action for handling on-site emergencies from basic first aid to fire or serious injury.
Emotional Factors: Emotions brought to class by adult learners that may help or hinder their learning.
Employer's Association: Organization of employers who band together mainly to deal with labor unions as a unified group.
Empty Sticker: The tag indicating a crate may be moved into storage. The sticker identifies the exhibitor and the return location for the crate.
en Brochette: Broiled and served on a skewer. See À LA BROCHE. See Also SHISH KEBOB.
en Casserole: Food served in the same dish in which it was baked.
en Coquille: Cooked and served in shell or shell-shaped ramekin.
en Croûte: Baked in a flaky crust (e.g. Beef Wellington).
Encryption: The translation of data into code. One of the most effective ways to achieve data security.
End Cap: An exhibit space with aisles on three sides. See PENINSULA.
Energy Break: Refreshment break where nutritious foods and beverages are served, occasionally including some form of exercise. See BREAK.
Engagement: Used as a noun to describe a set booking or date when a buyer has secured the services of, or employed, a speaker.
Engineering: Department in a facility (hotel, convention center, etc.) responsible for operating and maintaining a building’s services systems, such as climate control, electrical, and water.
English Breakfast: A large, hearty breakfast that can include juice, hot cereal, eggs, meat (often fish), pastries with jellies and preserves, and hot beverages.
English Service: Food is brought to the table on a tray, presented to the host, who either cuts the food him/herself or chooses to have it done by the server away from the table. Vegetables are placed in bowls on the table for guests to serve themselves. See FAMILY-STYLE SERVICE.
Entertainment Program: Program of events organized for the entertainment of participants.
Entertainment: Activity performed for the amusement and enjoyment of others.
Entrecôte: Sirloin steak.
Entrée: Main meal course. (In Europe, it is the term used to describe the appetizer.) With the increase in international business, it is recommended that the word entree no longer be used, in favor of main course.
Environmental Considerations: Those conditions in an event facility surrounding and affecting projection and audio quality (i.e., doors, ceiling height, etc.).
EOR: Exhibitor of Record.
Épice: Highly spiced.
EPO: Each pays own. See PAY OWN.
Equalization: The intentional alteration of levels of portions of the audio frequency spectrum to fit the requirements of frequency response defined by a listener. Traditionally, the term equalization was used to describe the replacement (always a boost) of energy lost as a result of long telephone line runs of wire, but today the term is used to describe any change in frequency response or spectral balance done intentionally by using any device, which includes circuits that can produce these changes.
Equalizer: Device used to compensate for undesired sound system characteristics or room acoustics.
Equipment Manager: A person assigned to issue and maintain accountability of equipment such as radios, uniforms, flashlights, signage, umbrellas, traffic cones, and stanchions.
Erase: 1) Permanently remove information from a magnetic medium such as a videotape. 2) Delete from a computer storage device.
Erection: The set up and teardown of exhibits. See I&D.
Errors and Omissions Insurance: Errors and Omissions Insurance – Often referred to as E&O insurance. A form of insurance that indemnifies the insured for any loss sustained because of an error or oversight on his part.
ESCA: Exhibition Services & Contractors Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
Escargots: Snails cooked in broth.
Escoffier Dish: Serving containers for chafing dishes.
Escort: A person, usually employed or subcontracted (or independently contracted) by a DMC, who accompanies a tour from departure to return, as a guide. 2) A person who performs such functions only at the destination.
Escorted Tour: 1) A prearranged travel program, usually for a group escorted. In a fully conducted tour, escort and/or guide service is provided throughout. 2) A sightseeing program conducted by a guide (e.g. a city tour). See TOUR. See Also ESCORT.
ESG: Event Specifications Guide is the industry's official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event.
Espresso: A very thick, strong coffee, served in a demi tasse cup.
Est. Wt.: Estimated Weight.
Estimate: 1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics. 3) Approximate calculation of exhibit costs.
ETA: Estimated time of arrival.
Etching: Inscribing lines of textures on the surface of rigid materials using acids or tools.
ETD: Estimated time of departure.
Ethernet Internet Service: Local area network of computers and associated devices that share a global information system.
Étouffée: A Cajun dish of crawfish or shrimp with vegetable, usually served over rice.
Étouffée: Succulent, tangy, tomato-based sauce, usually used with crawfish or shrimp.
European Community: EC. The block of Western European countries formerly knows as the European Economic Community (EEC).
European Currency Unit: ECU. Currency unit of the European Community, called the “Euro.”
European Plan: EP. A room rate that does not include meals. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, DEMI-PENSION, MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN.
Evaluation Learning Method: Tests whether attendees learned what was expected, and if they can use the information effectively.
Evaluation: 1) Critiquing and rating the overall success of an event. 2) Developing an event profile from accurate event statistics.
Event Organizer: Person whose job it is to oversee and arrange every aspect of an event. Person can be an employee or hired ad hoc to plan, organize, implement, and control meetings, conventions, and other events.
Event Site: Premises where an event will be held. See SITE.
Event Specifications Guide: Event Specifications Guide is the industry's official term for the document used by an event organizer to convey information clearly and accurately to appropriate venue(s) and/or suppliers regarding all requirements for an event.
Event: An organized occasion such as a meeting, convention, exhibition, special event, gala dinner, etc. An event is often composed of several different yet related FUNCTIONS.
Event-Contracted Block : ECB. The rooms that are contracted for by an event organizer with a hotel(s) or housing facility(s) for a particular event.
Excess Baggage: Baggage which exceeds the free allowance set by the airline.
Exchange Rate: The relative value of two different currencies at a specific time.
Exciter Lamp: Lamp which projects illumination through optical sound track on 16mm film. Light patterns are read by the projector sound head converted to electronic signals fed to an audio amplifier.
Exclusion: A contractual provision that denies coverage for certain perils, persons, property, or locations.
Exclusive Contract: Contract between a facility and a service provider designating that provider as the only provider of a specific service or products in that facility.
Exclusive Contractor: Contractor appointed by event or building management as the sole agent to provide specific services or products.
Exclusive Right to Sell: When a speaker’s bureau/agency has a contract with a speaker and is the sole and exclusive representative of the speaker.
Exclusive Use: Rental of entire truck or van by one shipper.
Exclusive: Any agreement which limits who may provide specific products or services under certain conditions to only one party. A general service contractor, for instance, may have an "exclusive" in a particular facility, meaning that no other contractor is allowed to provide the same services or products in that facility.
Excursion: A tour. A recreational trip or activity provided to event participants and/or accompanying persons as a scheduled portion of the event program. See TOUR.
Executive Coach: A luxury motorcoach with seating of 25 or less which can include such amenities as TV, galley, wet bar, card tables, etc.
Executive Committee: A committee of the Board of Directors that acts between meetings of the board to determine organizational policy.
Executive Conference Center: A first class conference facility that caters to executive level events.
Executive Director: Person appointed or hired to handle or direct day-to-day organizational functions.
Exhibit Booth/Stand: Individual display area constructed to showcase products or convey a message.
Exhibit Designer/Producer: Person or company responsible for designing and constructing an exhibit booth/stand.
Exhibit Directory: Program or catalog for attendees listing exhibitors and exhibit booth/stand location. See DIRECTORY.