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ESL Guide

Hospitality & Food Service Mgmt, pg. 5

  1. Hotel Classifications: There is no official classification or accepted rating system for U.S. hotels, but the following definitions are generally understood: BUDGET - Budget hotels and motels are reasonably priced accommodations and are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. lodging industry. In general they provide a room with a bed, TV, telephone and shower as well as free parking. They often do not have room service or a restaurant. DELUXE - a top-grade hotel, all rooms have a private bath; all the usual public rooms and services are provided a high standard of decor and services is maintained. FIRST CLASS and LUXURY - Many luxury hotels in the U.S. exist in large cities, offering a number of special services to the business and leisure traveler. A U.S. first class hotel offers, for example, first rate restaurants, banquet and conference rooms, valet service, room service, cable TV and complimentary morning newspapers. MODERATE - These hotels account for nearly 75% of available U.S. hotel rooms. They have on-site restaurants, bar and perhaps conference rooms, as well as the basic services. TOURIST ECONOMY or SECOND CLASS - Budget operations; most have private baths; services may be very limited.
  2. Hotel Reservation: A contract between the hotel to provide a guest room on certain dates and rate and the guest who agrees to use the hotel on the specified dates at the agreed upon rate (and any other terms). If the guest breaches the reservation contract by being a no-show or failing to cancel on time, the hotel is owed damages. The usual term is the payment of one-night's room rate (they shouldn't charge you if they sell out. They also shouldn't charge tax unless required by state or local law). See DISHONORED RESERVATION.
  3. Hotel Show: An exhibition held in a hotel. See EXHIBITION.
  4. Hotel/Motel Tax: See TRANSIENT OCCUPANCY TAX.
  5. House Account: Term for internal accounting by the facility to cover incidental expenses not chargeable to the event or another hotel account.
  6. House Board: Switch panel from which all electrical fixtures are operated.
  7. House Brand: Brand of wine or distilled spirits selected by a hotel or restaurant as their standard when no specific brand is specified.
  8. House Count: Number of guests or sleeping rooms actually occupied on a particular night.
  9. House Lights: Lighting of room separate from stage lighting.
  10. House Manager: Person in charge of the auditorium side of a facility and not the stage production.
  11. House Plan: Diagram depicting the function space in a facility or the entire facility.
  12. House Wine: Brand of wine selected by a hotel or restaurant as their standard when no specific brand is specified.
  13. House: A synonym for hotel commonly used within the industry. Examples are: full house, house count, house income, house bank and house charge.
  14. Housekeeping Announcements: Announcements about schedule changes, locations of functions, and similar program information.
  15. Housekeeping Instructions: Special directions to a facility’s housekeeping department from an event organizer that apply to that event and its attendees. Can include information such as the best time frame for refreshing sleeping rooms.
  16. Housekeeping: Facility department charged with maintaining and cleaning a venue.
  17. Houseman: Service-staff member who handles function-room set up and tear down. See BANQUET SET-UP.
  18. Housing Bureau: Organization that provides reservation services for a group and its attendees.
  19. Housing Form: Form used by event attendees to make reservations at an event-contracted hotel or housing facility.
  20. Housing Priority Points: A system used by some event organizers to assign guest rooms in housing facilities or floor space in an exhibition where preferred locations are given to those exhibitors or sub-blocks with higher priority points. Points are also often awarded for consecutive years of attendance/exhibiting, early registration for an event, sponsorship levels, etc. Points are often earned (primarily by exhibitors or exhibiting companies) by booking guest room reservations within the Event Contracted Block (ECB). See Also EVENT CONTRACTED BLOCK, SUB-BLOCK.
  21. Housing Report: Document detailing housing utilization (reservations, pickup, etc.).
  22. Housing: Shelter or lodging.
  23. HSMAI: Hospitality Sales & Marketing Association International. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  24. Hub & Spoke Tour: A TOUR that utilizes a central destination with side trips of varying length to nearby destinations.
  25. Hub Airport: An airport used as a central point for passengers to make flight connections and for carriers to have maintenance facilities.
  26. Hub and Spoke: Air carriers use of selected cities as “hubs” or connected points for service on their systems to regional destinations.
  27. Hub: An airport or city which serves as a central connecting point for aircraft, trains or buses from outlying feeder airports or cities.
  28. Hudson’s Stages of Developmental Learning: Stages of learning that one encounters throughout a lifetime; the priorities present in each stage affect the way a person learns.
  29. Hue: Color or shade.
  30. Human Arrow: A person, who holds signage, greets guests, presents an enthusiastic demeanor, gives directions and keeps people moving in the right direction.
  31. Humanist: A learner who seeks education in order to change his/her value structure and achieve personal goals.
  32. Hurty Gurty: See GENIE LIFT.
  33. Hush Puppies: Small, round, fried cornbread with onions and spices, usually served with fish.
  34. HVAC: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. See A/C.
  35. Hypertext: Text that links to another file and can be selected (clicked on) to go to another document, image or FTP (download) site.
  36. Hz: Hertz. Unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
  37. I&D: Installation & Dismantle. 1) The set-up and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work. See ERECTION.
  38. IAAM: International Association of Assembly Managers. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  39. IAAMC: International Association of Association Management Companies.
  40. IAAPA: International Association of Amusement Parks and Attractions.
  41. IACC: International Association of Conference Centers. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  42. IACET: International Association for Continuing Education and Training.
  43. IACVB: International Association of Convention and Visitor Bureaus. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  44. IAEM: International Association for Exhibition Management. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  45. IAHMP: International Association of Hispanic Meeting Planners.
  46. IAMAT: International Association for Medical Assistance for Travelers.
  47. IASB: International Association of Speakers Bureaus. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  48. IATA #: Identification (or membership) number of travel agents who receive commission.
  49. IATA: 1) (Pronounced ‘eye’-AH-ta’.) International Air Transport Association.
  50. IATSE: International Association of Theatrical Stage Employees.
  51. Ice Carving: Decorative carving from large block(s) of ice used to enhance a buffet or reception table.
  52. Ice Wine: A dessert wine made by picking grapes that are frozen on the vine and pressing them before they thaw. Because the water in the grapes is frozen, the juice is concentrated, rich in flavor and high in sugar and acid. Ice wines are renowned in Germany, where they're called Eiswein (pronounced ICE-vine).
  53. Icon: A facility or landmark which is visually synonymous with a destination.
  54. ICPA: Insurance Conference Planners Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  55. ICW: In Conjunction With. An event or function that occurs because of another event.
  56. ID Sign: Exhibit booth/stand identification sign.
  57. Idiot Card: Cue card which displays script to performers on stage in order to prompt lines. See CAMERA CARD. See Also CUE CARD.
  58. IEA: International Exhibitors Association.
  59. IFSEA: International Food Service Executives Association.
  60. IHO: In honor of.
  61. Illuminations: Lighting available in hall, built into exhibit, or available on a rental basis.
  62. Illusion Mirror: Generally translucent mirror, which reflects when confronted with light source and is transparent when rear illuminated.
  64. Image Magnification: Technology by which presenter’s image is projected onto a large screen, allowing large audiences to see details from the stage. Also called I-Mag.
  65. Immigration: The process by which a government official verifies a person’s passport, visa or birth certificate.
  66. Impaired Vision Seating: View of stage, from audience seating, which is blocked. See OBSTRUCTED VIEW.
  67. Impedance: Total amount of opposition to the flow of alternating currents in an electrical circuit which may comprise resistance, capacitance, inductance or reactance.
  68. Import License: A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
  69. Import: To bring international goods into a country. In international sales, the importer is usually the buyer or an intermediary who accepts and transmits goods to the buyer. Compare With EXPORT.
  70. In Sync: Sound and picture are synchronized or matched perfectly.
  71. Inauguration Ceremony: A ceremony which marks the official beginning of a public event or at which officers of an organization officially assume their responsibilities. Often includes an address by a dignitary and possibly some form of dedication or token event such as cutting a ribbon, passing a gavel, laying a cornerstone or planting a tree.
  72. Inbound Tour Operator: A tour operator or travel agent who specializes in services for incoming visitors. Same as RECEPTIVE OPERATOR. See INBOUND TOUR.
  73. Inbound Tour: A group of travelers whose trip originated in another city or country. See INBOUND TOUR OPERATOR. Compare With OUTBOUND TOUR.
  74. Inbound Transfer: To move or travel toward a destination.
  75. Incentive Event: A reward event intended to showcase persons who meet or exceed sales or production goals.
  76. Incentive Travel Company: Company which designs and handles some or all elements of incentive travel programs.
  77. Incentive Travel: A travel reward given by companies to employees to stimulate productivity.
  78. Incentive Travel: Travel offered as a reward for top performance and the business that develops, markets and operates these programs.
  79. Incentive: Reward offered to stimulate greater effort.
  80. Incident Report: A document prepared to record information including time, date, location, parties involved, witnesses, and nature or description of an incident. See ACCIDENT REPORT.
  81. Incidental Entertainment: Performers who must be watched to be appreciated, such as mimes, jugglers, dancers, and acrobats. See SIGHT ACTS.
  82. Incidentals: Expenses other than room and tax, billed to a guest’s account (e.g. phone, room service, etc.).
  83. In-City Transport: The means of traveling within a city.
  84. Inclusive Cost: Quoted cost; no extra costs to be added. Usually refers to tax and gratuity for food and beverage functions.
  85. Inclusive Rate: 1) The amount charged for a room, usually including breakfast (or other meals), taxes and service charge. See FULL AMERICAN PLAN (FAP). See Also MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN (MAP). 2) When applied to food or beverage, includes taxes, gratuities and/or service charges.
  86. Inclusive Tour: A tour program that includes a variety of feature for a single rate (airfare, accommodations, sightseeing, performances, etc.)
  87. Inclusive: Price charged clients that include all applicable gratuities and consumption taxes.
  88. Income Statement: A statement of revenues and expenses. Also known as a profit & loss statement.
  89. Indemnification Clause: A contract clause in which one party agrees to pay damages or claims that the other party may be required to pay to another. For example, if a hotel is sued by an attendee that is injured at an event due to the fault of the group, an indemnification clause might require the group to pay back the hotel. Some times the law requires one party to indemnify another even without a specific clause. Generally, the terms of the clause will be followed over the state law. See HOLD HARMLESS.
  90. Independent Contractor: Person contractually retained by another (other than as an employer) to perform specific tasks. The other person has no control over the independent contractor other than as provided in the contract. In the context of group travel, a tour manager or tour brochure designer/writer might be retained in this capacity.
  91. Independent Service Contractor : Any company, other than the designated “official” contractors, providing services (display installation and dismantling, models/demonstrations, florist, photographer, audiovisual, etc.) employed by the exhibitor needing access to an exhibit any time during installation, event dates, and/or dismantling.
  92. Independent Show Management Company: 1) A contractor hired by an exhibitor to perform event services independent of event management-appointed contractors. See EXHIBITOR APPOINTED CONTRACTOR (EAC). 2) Any individual or company hired to perform event services on a contract basis.
  93. Independent Union: Labor union not affiliated with organizations e.g. Congress of Industrial Organizations or the American Federation of Labor.
  94. Indirect Costs: Also called overhead or administrative costs, these are expenses not directly related to the event. They can include salaries, rent, and building and equipment maintenance.
  95. Indirect Spending: Spending by a host destination’s travel industry businesses on goods and services from local suppliers on behalf of a specific event. See Also DIRECT SPENDING, ECONOMIC IMPACT, & INDUCED SPENDING.
  96. Individualized Learning Patterns: Learning activities that the learner completes by him/herself.
  97. Induced Spending: Occurs when employees in a host destination’s travel industry and its suppliers spend their wages in the local economy. This chain of buying and selling among businesses and employees continues until the original direct spending leaks out of the local economy. See Also DIRECT SPENDING, INDIRECT SPENDING, & ECONOMIC IMPACT.
  98. Inducements: Marketing tools or programs used to influence buying patterns and build customer loyalty.
  99. Inductance: Term used to describe the electrical property of an inductor. A mechanical analogy of an inductor is an electrical spring; the inductor can store electrical energy fed into it and return it directly back into the circuit. The inductor tends to block the flow of AC currents depending on their frequency and to pass DC currents.
  100. Induction Loop: Inductive transmitter for hearing aids, closed electric circuit within a building or auditorium which relays sound to a hearing aid.
  101. Industrial Show: See VERTICAL SHOW. See Also HORIZONTAL SHOW.
  102. Informal Dress: Business suits or jackets with shirts and ties for men and day dresses or suits for women; usually taken to mean office and not recreational wear. Can include informal forms of national dress.
  103. Informal Meeting: Informal gathering, not necessarily social.
  104. Information Desk: Stand at which an official gives information.
  105. Infrasonic: Sound at frequencies generally considered too low to be heard (sounds in the range of 1 to 15 Hertz). Infrasonic sound can be felt if its power level is sufficiently high and can cause nervousness and/or fatigue and disorientation in people exposed to it.
  106. Infringement: Use of floor space outside exclusive booth/stand area.
  107. Inherent Vice: An insurance term referring to any defect or other characteristic of a product that could result in damage to the product without external cause. For example, instability in a chemical that could cause it to explode spontaneously. Insurance policies may specifically exclude losses caused by inherent vice.
  108. Inherently Flame Resistant: Material that is permanently flame resistant without chemical treatment.
  109. In-House Contractor: Contractor retained by a facility to be on-site and provide services as needed. In some cases, Planners are not required to use their services, but may be charged a surcharge or facility fee for bringing in an outside contractor for the same service. See EXCLUSIVE CONTRACTOR.
  110. In-House Service: Service provided directly and entirely within the property.
  111. In-House: 1) Company’s travel reservations and ticketing occur in the company’s travel department staffed by the company’s own personnel. 2) Services offered to the client that are directly provided by the company’s own personnel, as opposed to being subcontracted. 3) A guest who is present, i.e. if 300 rooms are occupied, there are 300 guests in house.
  112. Injection Modeling: Method of protecting exhibit properties.
  113. Inland Bill of Lading: A Bill of Lading (B/L) used in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier. Although a bill of lading can sometimes be used, it is usually necessary to prepare both an inland bill of lading and an ocean bill of lading for export shipments. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
  114. Inline Booth/Stand: Exhibit space with exhibit booths on either side and back. See INSIDE BOOTH/STAND.
  115. In-Plant: Company’s travel reservations and ticketing occur in the company’s travel department staffed by travel agency’s personnel.
  116. Input Level: Level in units such as dB, volts or watts that a particular piece of electronic equipment receives at its input. Input levels are alternately described as nominal (the normal operating level) or maximum (the level above which distortion occurs).
  117. Inquiry Card: A card, collected from attendees, requesting information about exhibitors. See LEAD.
  118. INS: Marks chalked on the floor showing where drapes are to be hung.
  119. Insert: 1) Matted or framed portion of a picture. 2) Additional shot added to a scene at a later time. 3) Interchangeable copy or art panels.
  120. Inside Booth/Stand: Exhibit space with exhibit booths/stands on both sides and back. See INLINE BOOTH/STAND.
  121. Inside Marketer: Sales rep: employee of speaker.
  122. Installation & Dismantle: I&D. 1) The set-up and teardown of exhibits. 2) Firm that does I&D work. See ERECTION.
  123. Installation: Setting up exhibit booth/stand and materials according to instructions and drawings.
  124. Installer: Skilled labor used to set up displays at events. The union affiliation of the installer will vary based upon the locale and the facility in question.
  125. Institute: In-depth instructional meeting providing intensive education on a particular subject.
  126. Intangible Assets: Non-physical assets such as patents, trademarks, a customer base, brand recognition of your products, etc. Also known as goodwill.
  127. Integrated Marketing: Marketing activities with a common focus on the marketplace or a customer segment. The execution of each individual piece of the integrated marketing plan is consistent with, and supportive of, each of the other pieces of the plan.
  128. Integrated Meeting: A meeting which forms part of a larger event.
  129. Integrated Symposium: A symposium which forms part of a larger event.
  130. Intelligent Lighting: Lighting instruments that can be computer controlled to move light around the room, and project color and patterns on screens, scenery, walls or floor.
  131. Interactive Exhibits: Exhibits in which the visitor is involved with the exhibit in a proactive way.
  132. Interactive Learning: Learning activities in which learners participate together.
  133. Interactive Response: A system which enables the audience to respond to prepared questions by means of a multifunction keypad. Responses are fed to a computer which tabulates them and displays the results graphically on a projection screen.
  134. Interactive Video: Video programming which allows the viewer to be involved in an active way with the information to be presented. Often used in exhibits.
  135. Inter-City Transport: The means of traveling between two cities.
  136. Intercom: Audio system permitting two-way communication.
  137. Interiorscapers: Designers/decorators who specialize in using decorations to enhance event and create a theme.
  138. Interline Connection: An airline connection which involves transferring from a plane of one airline to that of another carrier. Also Called OFF-LINE CONNECTION.
  139. Interlock: Synchronization of two or more sound and/or picture sources.
  140. Intermediate Carrier: A carrier that transports a passenger or piece of baggage as part of an interline movement, but on which neither the point of origin nor destination is located.
  141. Intermezzo: Intermission. The pause in dinner service just prior to the entree. A sorbet is usually served to cleanse the palate. A short period of dancing may also be included.
  142. Intermodal Tour: TOUR using several forms of transportation such as plane, motor coach, cruise line and railroad to create a diversified and efficient tour package.
  143. International Event: An event that draws a national and international audience. Typically 15% or more of attendees reside outside of the host country.
  144. International Freight Forwarder: An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. At the request of the shipper, the forwarder makes the actual arrangements and provides the necessary services for expediting the shipment to its overseas destination. The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter's name. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. The forwarder operates on a fee basis paid by the exporter and often receives an additional percentage of the freight charge from the common carrier. In the United States, an export freight forwarder must be licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission to handle ocean freight and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to handle air freight. An ocean freight forwarder dispatches shipments from the United States via common carriers, books or arranges space for the shipments, and handles the shipping documentation. See FREIGHT FORWARDER.
  145. International Marketing: Marketing a destination, product or service to consumers and the trade outside the of the United States.
  146. International Sales Agent: An individual or firm that serves as the foreign representative of a domestic supplier and seeks sales abroad for the supplier. See AGENT.
  147. Internegative: Film negative of motion picture made from original raw negative to facilitate making of positive copies in quantity.
  148. Internet Service Provider: ISP. A service that provides access to the Internet.
  149. Interpretation in Relay: Oral translation utilizing two interpreters. Because the first interpreter is not master of the second language, another makes the final interpretation to the audience. See CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETATION, INTERPRETATION, SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION, TRANSLATION, WHISPERED INTERPRETATION, WIRELESS INFRARED INTERPRETING SYSTEM.
  151. Interpreter: An individual who explains or translates. See INTERPRETATION.
  152. Intro: A slang term for an introduction.
  153. Introduction: A carefully written opener about a speaker, which is delivered by the introducer at the beginning of a speech. A good introduction gives some ideas of the speaker’s credits, achievements, and honors and also answers the question: “Why this speaker, on this date, for this audience?”
  154. Inventory: Total amount of furniture, equipment or other goods available in stock.
  155. Invitation Letter: Letter to a potential speaker outlining the preliminary purpose and plans of an event and requesting their services.
  156. Invitation Program: A provisional program sometimes incorporating a call for papers. The program gives details of venue, participants, agenda, accommodations, etc.
  157. Invited Paper: Paper or speech on a specific subject submitted at the request of an event’s organizers. See GUEST SPEECH.
  158. Invited Speaker: A person who is invited to deliver a speech during the conference. Costs of travel, housing and appropriate appearance fees usually are provided for in the conference budget.
  159. Invocation: Prayer at the beginning of a function.
  160. Invoice: An itemized bill, including prices, of goods and services sold or shipped.
  161. Involuntary Upgrade: Airline moves passenger to higher priced class at no charge.
  162. IP Address: Internet Protocol Address. A numeric value unique to an individual computer that allows a signal to find that computer on a network. The IP address is assigned through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or network administrator.
  163. IPO: Individual Pays Own. See Also EPO, PAYS OWN.
  164. Iris: A device used to alter the size of the beam of light, usually with an aperture near the gate of the fixture.
  165. ISES: International Special Events Society. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  166. Island Booth/Stand: Booth/stand space with aisles on all four sides.
  167. Island Exhibit: A three-dimensional display exposed to aisles on all four sides. See FREE FORM.
  168. Isometric: A perspective-like drawing, except that all lengths have the same proportion.
  169. Itinerant: Reusable exhibit or display with scheduled shipping from place to place.
  170. Jacket: 1) Clear plastic covering to protect slides. 2) Short coat for the upper body, typically worn by food servers, bellmen, etc.
  171. Jacobs Ladder: A series of horizontal panels held together with a vinyl bank. These panels flip to expose the opposite side when top horizontal panel is mechanically turned.
  172. Jambon: Ham.
  173. Jan: Joint Army-Navy specification. Pertains to the stringent government specifications used for electronic components of specified quality or survivability or of tightly maintained quality control, and often means these parts will last longer, withstand higher temperatures voltages, currents, etc., than their consumer counterparts.
  174. Janitorial Service: Service offered for cleaning booths/stands, facilities, etc.
  175. Jardinière: Diced, mixed vegetables (jardin is garden in French).
  176. Java: 1) Slang for coffee. 2) An object-oriented programming language invented by Sun Microsystems. Java runs over the Internet and provides a secure environment for writing and executing World Wide Web applications.
  177. J-Bar: Long-handled wooden pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in freight handling. Also Called JOHNSON BAR.
  178. Jewel Light: Colored plastic or glass insert used in front of a light source in panel faces to identify, pinpoint, etc., areas.
  179. Jig: Shop or bench set-up for making repetitive assemblies.
  180. Jigger Spout: Adapter on a liquor bottle used to eject a premeasured amount. Often called Posi-Pour™ which is a trademarked brand name for this type of device.
  181. Jigger: A 1-ounce measure used in making alcoholic drinks.
  182. Jigging: Special dividers, sectioning and protective padding inside exhibit crates.
  183. Jigsaw: Narrow blade set in a frame used with a vertical motion for cutting along wavy or irregular lines.
  184. JLG: Brand name for equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See HIGH JACKER. See Also MAN LIFT, SCISSOR LIFT, GENIE LIFT, HI LOW, FORKLIFT.
  185. Job Box: See TROUBLE BOX.
  186. Job Description: List of duties that make up a particular job position.
  187. Job Foreman: One who is in charge of specific projects.
  188. Job Specification: List of qualities (e.g. work experience, education) a job applicant needs in order to be considered for a particular job.
  189. Johnson Bar: Long-handled wooden pry bar with metal tip and wheels used in freight handling. Also Called J-BAR.
  190. Joint Agreement: Union contract covering more than one employer and a union, more than one union and an employer, or a number of employees and a number of unions.
  191. Joint Fares: Through-fare for travel on two or more airlines.
  192. Jointing: Technique of rendering lumber surfaces perfectly straight and smooth so as to permit a perfect fit. This operation is usually performed on continuous automatic machine called a jointer.
  193. Jones Plug: Multi-prong electrical connector.
  194. Journeyman: Worker who has satisfactorily completed an apprenticeship in a skilled trade.
  195. JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A graphic file format that has a sophisticated technique for compressing full-color bitmapped graphics, such as photographs. JPEG is most commonly mentioned as a format for image files.
  196. Julienne: Vegetables cut in long thin slices.
  197. Junction Box: A distribution point for electrical power.
  198. Junior Suite: A hotel room that features a separate living-sitting area (although not a separate room), in addition to the bedroom.
  199. Jurisdiction: 1) The jobs that may be performed by a specific labor union. 2) The locality where a contractual dispute is decided. 3) In law, the ability of a court to hear and decide a matter brought before it.
  200. Jurisdictional Dispute: Conflict between unions concerning the right to control certain jobs in a particular trade or industry.
  201. Jury-Rig: To construct or rig in a temporary and makeshift way.
  202. Justified Type: Type set with both margins flush often leaving odd spaces between words.
  203. Kbps: Kilobits per second. A rate of data transmission over a computer network.
  204. KD: Knock Down. Exhibit or display components requiring on-site assembly.
  205. Keg: Cask-like container holding bulk quantities of beer, wine, soda pop, or soda pop syrup.
  206. Kelvin Temperature: The temperature at which a light source should be in order to produce the proper color of light.
  207. Key Card: Plastic card used in place of room key.
  208. Key Light: Principal source of focused, intense illumination on a subject or area.
  209. Keynote Address: A session that opens or highlights the show, meeting or event.
  210. Keynote Speaker: Speaker whose presentation establishes the theme or tone of the event.
  211. Keynote: Opening remarks or presentation at a meeting that sets the tone or theme of the event and motivates attendees.
  212. Keystoning: Distortion of a projected image on a screen, where the image is wider on top and narrower on bottom. The image distorts from a rectangle into a trapezoid because the projector is above or below the center point of the screen; either the top or the bottom become wider because it is further away from the lens. To adjust for keystoning, the top of the screen can be tilted a little, either forward or back. Many data projectors allow you to tilt the lens to solve the problem.
  213. KHz: See KILOHERTZ.
  214. Kick Base: Base molding or band added to structure to absorb marring caused by brooms, mops, etc.
  215. Kickback: A payment (money or property) made in return for influencing a buying or hiring decision. Generally thought of as an illegal payment, especially if it is not disclosed. See BLIND COMMISSION.
  216. Kilohertz: One thousand cycles per second; replaces the obsolete term kc (kilocycles). Abbreviated kHz.
  217. Kimchee: (KIHM-chee) A spicy-hot, extraordinarily pungent condiment used in Korean cuisine. It is made from fermented vegetables, such as cabbage or turnips that have been pickled, stored in sealed pots or jars, and buried in the ground. It is dug up and used as needed. Alternate spelling is Kimchi.
  218. Kimchi: (KIHM-chee) A spicy-hot, extraordinarily pungent condiment used in Korean cuisine. It is made from fermented vegetables, such as cabbage or turnips that have been pickled, stored in sealed pots or jars, and buried in the ground. It is dug up and used as needed. Alternate spelling is Kimchee.
  219. Kine: Kinescope. Motion picture record of a television program.
  220. King-Size Bed: Large bed usually measuring 76-by-80 inches (190-by-200 centimeters). A long king-size bed measures 76-by-84 inches (190-by-213 centimeters).
  221. Kiosk: 1) Free-standing pavilion or light structure, often inside a facility, where printed or electronic information is available. 2) A small enclosure for ticket sales, information, etc.
  223. Klieg Light: See ELLIPSOIDAL SPOTLIGHT.
  224. Knock Down: KD. Exhibit or display components requiring on-site assembly.
  225. Knowles Theory: Proposes that for adults to learn, the following must be addressed: adults need to know why they need to learn something; adults need to learn through experience; adults view learning as problem solving; adults only learn when the material is immediately relevant.
  226. Kodalith: Type of film.
  227. KOH: A light fixture that is installed from catwalks, ceilings, or truss systems, and can easily light up a 10x20 booth/stand space. It cannot be installed on the exhibit itself due to the temperature at which it burns.
  228. Kosher: Food prepared according to Jewish dietary laws pertaining not only to the type of food that may be eaten, but to the kinds of food that can be combined at one meal (e.g. meat and dairy may not be mixed). To meet kosher standards and receive the kosher seal, food must be prepared under a rabbi's supervision. In addition to the kinds of animals considered kosher (pigs and rabbits are among the non-kosher group), the laws also decree that animals be fed organically grown food and killed in the most humane manner possible. Kosher foods are becoming popular with health-conscious consumers.
  229. Kraft Paper: An inexpensive wrapping paper.
  230. Kreplach: Jewish ravioli.
  231. L&D: Loss and Damage.
  232. L/C: Document issued by a bank per instructions from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. See LETTER OF CREDIT.
  233. LA: Letter of Authority.
  234. Labor Call: 1) Method of securing union employees. 2) Time specified for labor to report, (e.g. 8:00 a.m. call). 3) Minimum amount for which union labor must be paid. See CALL.
  235. Labor Desk: Location in exhibit hall where exhibitors can order labor on-site.
  236. Labor Form: Form used by exhibitors requesting labor at exhibition. Usually found in the EXHIBITOR MANUAL.
  237. Labor Policy: The principles established by a company to govern its dealings with its employees.
  238. Labor Relations: Dealings between an employer and its employees or their representatives concerning matters of mutual interest.
  239. Labor Union: Workforce organization requiting various rules to be followed by the employing facility advocating the well being of the workers.
  240. Labor: Refers to contracted workers who perform services. See CRAFTSPERSON.
  241. Lag Bus: A coach which lingers at a destination to move group members who may have missed the scheduled vehicles.
  242. Lagniappe: Creole term for giving something extra or unexpected.
  243. Lahvosh: Cracker bread.
  244. Lamination: The bonding under pressure of two or more materials to form a layer or sandwich of materials, e.g. plywood, plastic laminate.
  245. Lamp Life: Estimated hours of a lamp’s (light bulb's) usefulness.
  246. Lamp: Light source for a projector.
  247. LAN: Local Area Network. A computer network limited to the immediate area, often the same building or floor of a building.
  248. Lanai: Patio or balcony overlooking a garden or water.
  249. Land Operator: A company that provides local services, transfers, sightseeing, guides, etc. See RECEPTIVE OPERATOR.
  250. Landscape: 1) Sign where width is larger than height; horizontal. 2) An area of ground that has been arranged for human use and enjoyment usually with plants and structure.
  251. Langostino: Spanish for prawn (jumbo shrimp).
  252. Langouste: French word for Spiny Lobster (giant crawfish).
  253. Langoustine: French word for prawn (jumbo shrimp).
  254. Lanyard: A cord or string worn around the neck, as in corded badges.
  255. Large Group Patterns: Learning activities that require the participation of a large group of learners.
  256. Laser Pointer: A compact instrument consisting of a visible light laser, used for pointing out features on a projected visual display.
  257. Last Call: The final announcement to order bar beverages before bar service ends.
  258. Last Name: Name by which all immediate family members are known. Women usually (but not always) adopt their husband’s surname upon marriage. Same as SURNAME, FAMILY NAME (preferred). Compare With GIVEN NAME.
  259. Late Registration: A booking that is received after the stated deadline, usually incurring a penalty fee.
  260. Launch: The commencement of a new product or show into the market.
  261. Lav: Short for Lavatory or Lavaliere Microphone.
  262. Lavatory: Sanitary convenience. Also Called TOILET, WATER CLOSET (WC).
  263. Layout: Artist’s or designer’s indication of how a printed piece should look.
  264. Layover: A city on an itinerary where a passenger deplanes and spends time before continuing.
  265. Lazy Susan: Manually rotated tray on ball bearings. See TURNTABLE.
  266. LCD Projector: A self-contained unit with a LCD (liquid crystal display) panel, light source and lens that works with both PC and Mac computers and duplicates the image being shown on the monitor without any need for special software or complex setting up. See DATA PROJECTOR.
  267. LCD: Liquid Crystal Display. Display composed of mobile crystals in liquid suspension which align themselves and polarize light in response to a small electric charge. The crystals are manufactured in pockets within the display which correspond to areas of dark on light background.
  268. LCL: Less Than Carload.
  269. LDP: Last Day to Purchase a ticket against an existent reservation.
  270. Lead Dispatcher: On-site person responsible for overall transportation success or management.
  271. Lead Retrieval: The process whereby exhibitors receive a potential customer’s contact information in a standardized manner. A system for capturing and following-up on leads generated at an exhibition.
  272. Lead Sheet: Sales leads (RFPs) generated through a convention & visitors bureau or sales organization and forwarded out to potential suppliers. See REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS. See Also CONVENTION & VISITORS BUREAU.
  273. Lead Time: Time between when arrangements are made and when an event occurs, etc.
  274. Lead Tracking: A manual or automated system used to conduct follow-up activities for sales prospects resulting from an event.
  275. Lead: 1) According to the International Association of Convention & Visitors Bureaus, when an inquiry by a corporation/association/organization/independent event organizer that includes a request for a minimum of 10 sleeping rooms over a specific set/range of dates is forwarded by the CVB sales staff only to those hotels that meet the event organizer’s event criteria. A lead is more formalized than just exchanging/forwarding business cards to hotels. For convention center events, if the CVB sends a lead first to the convention center for date availability and then to the hotel(s) for room blocks as a matter of policy, this process should be counted as one (1) lead for reporting purposes. (rhymes with “seed”). 2) Potential customer. See SALES LEADS. 3) Amount of space between lines of type (rhymes with “dead”).
  276. Leader: Utility tape added to beginning or end of audio tape or film.
  277. Leadman: Employee who sets the pace for a group working on the same job or as a team.
  278. Leakage: The unwanted pickup of stray sound from sources other than the intended source feeding a specific microphone channel.
  279. Learning Environment Specialist: LES. A designation offered by the Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA).
  280. Learning Environment: The physical, emotional, psychological, physiological and social factors surrounding the learning experience.
  281. Lectern: A stand upon which a speaker may rest notes or books. May be “standing,” which rests on the floor, or “table-top” which is placed on a table. Often confused with PODIUM.
  282. Lecture: Informative and instructional speech.
  283. LED: Light Emitting Diode. A solid-state diode rectifier whose atomic properties cause it to emit light when electric current is passed through it. Current LED technology allows the emission of light from infrared through green frequencies, and visible light LEDs are available in colors from deep red to green.
  284. Leg: The part of a trip between two scheduled stops.
  285. Legal Connection: Prescribed minimum time to leave one flight and board another.
  286. Leisure Services: A service concerned with the organization of free or unoccupied time.
  287. Leisure Travel: Travel for recreational, educational, sightseeing, relaxing and other experiential purposes.
  288. Leko: Type of adjustable spotlight used to light lecterns, signs and areas that need a tightly focused pool of light. See ELLIPSOIDAL SPOTLIGHT. See Also LECTERN.
  289. Lenticular Screen: Screen finish with a characteristic silver-colored finish which has brighter reflective characteristics than a matte screen but with a wider viewing angle than a beaded screen. See SILVER LENTICULAR SCREEN.
  290. LES: Learning Environment Specialist. A designation offered by the Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA).
  291. Less Than Truckload: LTL. Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume of truckload minimum weight.
  292. Lessee: A person or entity who has possession of real or personal property under a lease. A tenant of real property under a lease.
  293. Lessor: Person or organization which conveys property under a lease.
  294. Letraset: Trade name for self adhesive vinyl letter.
  295. Letter of Agreement: Contract. Document outlining proposed services, space, or products which becomes binding upon signature by authorized representatives of both parties. It lists services, foods, beverages, and so forth.
  296. Letter of Credit: L/C. A document issued by a bank per instructions from a buyer of goods, authorizing the seller to draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. See CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT.
  297. Level: Level of audio volume. The term level refers to the power magnitude in either electrical watt or acoustic watts but is often incorrectly used to denote voltage. See GAIN.
  298. LFR: Lowest Fare Routing. The least expensive airfare available to the destination.
  299. Liability Clause: Part of a contract outlining conditions of liability.
  300. Liability Disclaimer: Legal statement releasing the organization from responsibility for any arrangements made by attendees with services listed by the organization (e.g., child care).
  301. Liability Insurance: An insurance policy that protects you in the event that there is bodily injury or property damage to other people. The liability can be because of negligence or a failure to live up to promises made under a contract.
  302. Liability Law: System of laws designed to protect people from damages caused by a party behaving in a negligent manner and creating or being responsible for harm as the result of that behavior.
  303. Liability: Legal responsibility. An obligation to pay an amount in damages. In a non-legal context, something that is a negative factor.
  304. Liaison Interpreter: Person interpreting a conversation between two or more persons from one or more foreign languages into his mother tongue and vice-versa.
  305. Liaison: A close collaboration for smooth coordination.
  306. License: Written permission granted by an authority to engage in a specific action or business.
  307. Licensing Agreement: A right or permission granted by the owner of a property (tangible or intangible) to engage in some business or occupation or engage in some transaction, which would be unlawful without such right, or permission. A business arrangement in which the manufacturer of a product (or a firm with proprietary rights over certain technology, trademarks, etc.) grants permission to some other group or individual to manufacture that product (or make use of that proprietary material) in return for specified royalties or other payment. Many convention center agreements are written as license agreements.
  308. Lifelong Learning: An ongoing process in which an individual actively seeks to understand and contribute to change.
  309. Lift Truck: Forklift.
  310. Lift: Number of airplane seats available on flights to a destination.
  311. Light Bar: A bar with a light that hangs behind a header.
  312. Light Box: Enclosure with lighting and translucent face of plastic or glass.
  313. Light Organ: Electronic device which allows sound waves to determine the color or intensity of lighting. An outmoded term and device from the 60’s; we now have audio sensitive controllers.
  314. Light Table: Illuminated glass-covered table used for viewing and editing slides.
  315. Lightface: Light type distinguished from medium or boldface.
  316. Lighting Control Console: Desk-type housing, used to contain the controls required for adjusting production lighting. See MASTER CONTROL.
  317. Lighting Director: Person who designs the lighting, directs placement of lighting equipment, and calls lighting cues on-site.
  318. Lighting Grid: Structures used to support lights and electrical outlets.
  319. Lighting Plot: A print showing the location and type of all lights used in a booth/stand.
  320. Lighting Truss: A construction of tubular steel or aluminum alloy onto which lighting instruments are hung and which is in turn suspended above the stage or exhibit.
  321. Lighting: 1) Service offered by electrical contractor for illumination. 2) Booth/stand or hall illumination. 3) Existing light provided by the venue for functionality and safety. 4) Controlled application of the art of lighting to impact sales, achieve atmosphere and otherwise enhance the experience of the event.
  322. Likert Scaling: Common question format, which uses standardized response options.
  323. Limited Consumption Bar: Host establishes the maximum dollar amount to be spent at an open bar. Bar is closed or converted to cash when limit is reached.
  324. Limited Power of Attorney: Permits the customs broker to complete the customs document upon the return of your shipment to the country of origin. A Power of Attorney allows one person to act as agent for another. A Limited Power of Attorney grants the right to act in only limited circumstances.
  325. Limiter: Audio amplifier whose output amplification rate of change is less than its input signal amplitude rate of change. While compressors are used to reduce the dynamic range of program signals either to make everything sound louder, or to automatically control sudden large changes in signal amplitude such as in the case of recording vocalists, limiters are used to prevent dynamic transient signal peaks from exceeding a pre-set amplitude. Limiters are usually required when broadcast signals are fed to telephone lines and are useful to prevent power amplifiers clipping and overdriving in large sound systems. Limiters sometimes include circuits that allow the user to adjust the time it takes to start reducing the signal amplitude (attack) to ease up on the compression (release), and also the input and output gain.
  326. Line Level: Average (power) level at which a signal is output from devices like mixers, cassette decks and other devices which process sound. Technically, this corresponds to –30 dBM (one microwatt) to +30 dBM (one watt).
  327. Line of Sight: Unobstructed line of vision from audience to stage. See SIGHTLINES.
  328. Line Switch: Electrical on/off switch used directly in wiring to control, by make or break, the flow of current.
  329. Linear Display: Linear exhibits are generally 10’ deep. They are offered in 10’ or 15’ widths and can be combined to create an exhibit of almost any length.
  330. Linen: Tablecloths and napkins. See NAPERY.
  331. Link: Using hypertext, a link is a selectable connection from one word, picture or information object to another. From a Web site, a link points to content.
  332. Liqueur Cart: Rolling cart that includes a selection of cordials. Usually passed after dinner.
  333. Liqueur: Sweet alcoholic beverages made by infusing flavor from seeds, fruits, herbs, flowers, nuts or spices with a spirit, such as Brandy, Rum or Whiskey. Essential oils and extracts are used for flavor. Less expensive brands use artificial flavoring. Most liqueurs are made with secret formulas. Also called cordials, they are high in alcohol and range from 49 proof for Cherry Heering to 110 proof for green Chartreuse. The crème liqueurs, such as Creme de Menthe, are sweeter and more syrupy. Liqueurs were originally used as a digestive. They are usually served after dinner but are part of many cocktails. Liqueurs can also be used in cooking (e.g. desserts). Examples are: Absinthe, Amaretto, Anisette, Benedictine, Cointreau, Crème de Cacao, Crème de Cassis, Drambuie, Frangelico, Galliano, Grand Mariner, Irish Mist, Kahlua, Midori, Ouzo, Pernod, Sambuca, Sloe Gin, Southern Comfort, Tia Maria, Triple Sec. See CORDIAL.
  334. Liquid Crystal Display: LCD. Display composed of mobile crystals in liquid suspension which align themselves and polarize light in response to a small electric change. The crystals are manufactured in pockets within the display which correspond to areas of dark on light background. See LCD.
  335. Liquidity: The percentage of an enterprise's assets that can be quickly converted into cash.
  336. Liquor License: A U.S. state granted right to sell and/or serve alcoholic beverages. Liquor license requirements vary by jurisdictions. Always check local liquor laws. There are three basic types of licenses: 1) On-Sale: Liquor is sold and must be consumed on the premises (bar or banquet room). 2) Off-Sale: Liquor is sold unopened and must be consumed off the premises (liquor store). 3) Beer and Wine: not authorized to sell spirits. Liquor licenses are based on the physical premises. If you are holding an event at a venue without a liquor license, you must obtain a temporary permit.
  337. Liquor: 1) A distilled, alcoholic beverage made from a fermented mash of various ingredients including grains or other plants. Examples: Bourbon, Gin, Vodka, Rum, Scotch and Tequila. Also called Spirits. 2) An oyster's natural juices are referred to as its liquor. 3) Pot liquor or pot likker refers to the liquid resulting from cooking meats or vegetables.
  338. List of Exhibitors: List of exhibiting firms, usually with location of their exhibit. May be arranged alphabetically, by category, or both and usually lists personnel who will be in attendance.
  339. List of Participants: Register of delegates and accompanying persons attending an event.
  340. Listing: A speaker grants the right to a speaker’s bureau to list the speaker as available. See BUREAU LISTING.
  341. Lit Rack: Literature Rack. Device used to hold literature or brochures.
  342. Liter: Metric unit of measurement used to package spirits and wines. Equal to approximately one quart (33.8 ounces). Alternate spelling is Litre.
  343. Literature Rack: Devices used to hold literature or brochures. Also Called LIT RACK.
  344. Litre: Metric unit of measurement used to package spirits and wines. Equal to approximately one quart (33.8 ounces). Alternate spelling is Liter.
  345. Load Chart: Chart showing the weight of shipments loaded in a trailer and the position in the vehicle of larger items, dangerous articles or special-attention shipments.
  346. Load Factor: Average number of seats occupied.
  347. Load In/Out: Scheduled times for crew to load and unload equipment.
  348. Load Site: Location from which participants will board vehicles for transfers.
  349. Loading Dock: Area on premises where goods are received. Usually a raised area that backloading trucks can back up to and offload freight easily.
  350. Loadlock: A metal brace to secure partial loads within trailers and railway cars.
  351. Lobby: 1) Public area which serves as an entrance or waiting area. 2) To engage in actions designed at influencing public officials toward a desired action.
  352. Local Beer/Wine: Beer or wine produced or distributed locally. Often boutique wineries or microbreweries.
  353. Local Committee: A group of people bringing specific expertise of the locality and facilities of a given area.
  354. Local Event: An event, such as a graduation ceremony, local festival, etc., that draws its audience primarily from the local market. Typically 80% of attendees reside within a 50 mile (80 km) of radius of the event site. Local audiences typically do not require overnight accommodations. See Also NATIONAL EVENT, REGIONAL EVENT, & STATE/PROVINCE EVENT.
  355. Local Fare: An airfare published by a carrier between two cities.
  356. Local Host: A group of local people who carry out the strategies and policies established for the organization of an event held in their geographic area. See ORGANIZING COMMITTEE.
  357. Local: Organization of employees in one area or in one company or a group of companies, chartered by and affiliated with a national or international union.
  358. Lockout: 1) Refusal by a facility to allow guests access to their guest rooms. 2) Labor action where employers refuse access to the facility by employees.
  359. Lock-Up: Storage area which can be locked.
  360. Logistics: Procurement, maintenance and transportation of materials. Involves all related functions and services.
  361. Logo: Symbol, often trademarked, that identifies an organization or event.
  362. Long Distance Dialing: The ability to place, and control billing for long distance telephone access, usually from an event room or show floor location. Directions on whether or not long distance dialing should be available from a specific location during an event should be indicated on function orders associated with that location and be included in the event’s specifications guide. See RESTRICTED DIALING.
  363. Loop Fabric: Fabric to which Velcro® fastener fabric will adhere.
  364. Loop Projector: Projector modified to run film that has been spliced into continuous loop.
  365. Loop: Closed electric circuit.
  366. Loose Jig: Removable support in shipping case.
  367. Loss Leader: Item offered by a retailer at cost or less than cost to attract customers. Also referred to as a price leader.
  368. Lost Opportunity: An event in the lead or tentative stage that is subsequently lost by a destination or facility. This does not include venue changes within a destination. According to the International Association of Convention & Visitor Bureaus, the local CVB should track the number of estimated room nights, attendance and attendee spending and the reason associated with the lost opportunity. Sometimes called LOST BUSINESS.
  369. Loudness: Sound volume as it is detected by the average human ear. Hearing is non-flat, and this non-flatness varies with changes in absolute SPL (Sound Pressure Level).
  370. Loudspeaker: Audio speaker used to magnify sound in a function room or large area.
  371. Lounge: 1) A public room (as in a hotel, club, or restaurant) where cocktails and other drinks are served. 2) A room or other area in an event venue designated as a place for attendees to rest and/or get refreshments.
  372. Low Season: Period when the demand for a supplier’s product or service is lowest. Prices general decrease in low season. Also Called VALUE SEASON. Compare With HIGH SEASON.
  373. Low Voltage: Term applied to currents of 24 volts or less. Must be transformed from normal 110 volt input. Useful in animation, lighted model, etc.
  374. Low-Balling: Giving a deceptively low price or estimate.
  375. Lowboy: A type of truck that can be adapted for picking up loads at ground level.
  376. Lower Case: Small letters, as distinguished from capital letters. Abbreviated lc.
  377. Low-Key Lighting: Lighting in which picture intensity produces limited bright areas.
  378. LTA: Lost Ticket Application. An application to request a refund on a lost airline ticket. There is often an additional charge for the application.
  379. Lucite: Term defining plastic similar to Plexiglas, an acrylic plastic.
  380. Lumiline: Slim, cylindrical, incandescent lamp; used as a substitute for fluorescent lamps where dimming is required.
  381. Luncheon: Lunch. A light noonday meal, sometimes with speeches or presentations.
  382. Lyonnaise: Cooked with onions (e.g. Lyonnaise Potatoes).
  383. MA Form: Document required by Canadian Customs identifying shipper, seller, consignee, terms, date of shipment, material being sold/shipped, classification code, quantity, unit and total prices. Additional information required on the invoice depends on shipper and consignee arrangements. See also CANADIAN CUSTOMS INVOICE.
  384. Macédoine: (mass ee dohn) Mixture of vegetables or fruits.
  385. Magnetic Key Systems: Means by which doors in hotels or other facilities are locked or unlocked. Usually, these are cards as opposed to actual keys. The system permits security staff members to know what key was used to enter the room and at what time.
  386. Magnetic Sound: Sound that is recorded on magnetic tape and may be incorporated on a film.
  387. Magnum: Wine bottles that contain 1.5 liters; equal to 2 standard bottles of wine.
  388. Mag-Stripe: Magnetic Stripe. A lead retrieval system using a magnetic strip on either the back of a paper badge (similar to some airline tickets) or on plastic badges similar to credit cards.
  389. Mailing House: Company equipped to handle bulk mailings on behalf of an organization.
  390. Mailing List: List of names and addresses of the persons to whom publicity material or other information is to be sent.
  391. Main Tent: Room or hall where business sessions and entertainment productions are held.
  392. Maître d’/Maître d' Hôtel: Floor manager or head waiter at a restaurant or catered function. Responsible for all aspects of meal service.
  393. Major Arrival: Information included in the specifications guide for an event that notes approximate dates and times at which large numbers of event attendees can be expected to arrive at a facility (hotel) for check-in. This is intended to give the facility notice in order to prepare for front desk staffing. See GROUP ARRIVALS/DEPARTURES.
  394. Major Departure: Information included in the specifications guide for an event that notes approximate dates and times at which large numbers of event attendees can be expected to check out of a facility (hotel). This is intended to give the facility notice in order to prepare for front desk staffing. See GROUP ARRIVALS/DEPARTURES.
  395. Make Work Practices: Union practices for spreading work by limiting production or by requiring employment of more workers than necessary for a particular job. See FEATHERBEDDING.
  396. Man Lift: Equipment capable of lifting a person or persons to a given height. See HIGH JACKER. See Also JLG, SCISSOR LIFT, GENIE LIFT, HI LOW, FORKLIFT.
  397. Management Committee: See EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.
  398. Management Prerogatives: Rights and powers essential to operation of business such as hiring, production methods and the like, which management claims are outside the scope of collective bargaining and over which management maintains authority and responsibility.
  399. Manager: A person hired to manage speakers or entertainer’s business and/or personal affairs. The job of manager may include marketing the speaker’s services for more bookings or performing public relations work for the speaker
  400. Managing Director: A principal executive officer.
  401. Manhattan Clam Chowder: Clam soup made with a tomato base.
  402. Manifest: Final official listing of all passengers and/or cargo aboard a transportation vehicle or vessel.
  403. Manpower Agency: Firm specializing in providing day-labor workers.
  404. Marine Insurance: Broadly, insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea. Marine insurance will typically compensate the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, piracy, and various other causes, but excludes losses which can be legally recovered from the carrier. See CREDIT RISK INSURANCE.
  405. Mark: Taped or chalked symbol on studio or stage floors designating exact placement of props and actors.
  406. Marker Board: See WHITE BOARD.
  407. Market Exclusivity: When the speaker limits the speakers bureau/agency to offering the speaker's services to a particular market or markets.
  408. Market Life Cycle: The period of time that a substantial segment of the buying public is interested in purchasing a given product or service.
  409. Market Penetration Pricing Strategy: Method by which cost of an item is derived, based on whether or not near term income is critical, and rapid market penetration for eventual market control is desired.
  410. Market Segments: Categorization of people, organizations or businesses by professional discipline or primary areas of interest for the purposes of sales analysis or assignment.
  411. Market Share: The percentage of business within a market category.
  412. Market Share: The percentage of the total sales (from all sources) of a service or product represented by the sales made by an enterprise. i.e. sales divided by total sales.
  413. Market Volume: The total number of travelers within a market category.
  414. Marketing: A process of identifying human wants and needs, and developing a plan to meet those wants and needs. Refers to everything involved with convincing an attendee to come to the event. Also refers to providing information to support the exhibit sales function.
  415. Marking the Carpet: Placing rolls of aisle carpet at the end of each aisle to facilitate laying the carpet, which is the last thing done before the event opens.
  416. Marking: Letters, numbers and other symbols placed on cargo packages to facilitate identification.
  417. Markup: Difference between the cost and the selling price of a given product. Difference between the net rate charged by a tour operator, hotel, or other supplier and the retail-selling price of the service. Generally a percentage of the net rate rather than a fixed amount, as in a 20 percent markup on the net.
  418. Marscapone Cheese: A rich Italian cream cheese, often used in Tiramisu.