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ESL Guide

Hospitality & Food Service Mgmt, pg. 6

  1. Marshalling Yard: A holding area where trucks or buses check in and wait for instructions before delivering or picking up freight or passengers.
  2. Mask: Scenic drape used to obscure undesirable view from the audience or to protect or cover. Also, an item used or worn to hide the face or covering an item with masking tape.
  3. Masking Drapes: Drapes used to cover storage and other unsightly areas.
  4. Masking: Sound applied to an environment to provide privacy in open areas. The term “masking” refers to the so-called “cocktail-party effect” where certain conversations are hard to pick out because similar sounds mask them. The ear-brain can be fooled into not hearing certain sounds if other sounds at lower volume but sufficient complexity are simultaneously present. Pink noise is most often used to cause intentional masking; its spectrum is shaped or filtered and fed to loudspeakers hidden above an acoustical tile ceiling.
  5. Masonite: Trade name for hardboard.
  6. Mass Learning Patterns: Learning activities delivered through mass communication media.
  7. Master Account: A record of transactions during an event where the resulting balance is paid directly by the group. May include room, tax, incidentals, food and beverage, audiovisual equipment, decor, etc. Also Called MASTER BILL.
  8. Master Bill: See MASTER ACCOUNT.
  9. Master Control: See LIGHTING CONTROL CONSOLE.
  10. Master Key: One key that will open function and guest rooms.
  11. Master Monitor: Video monitor which shows only the picture being aired.
  12. Master of Ceremonies: Person who presides over the program (MC, EMCEE).
  13. Master: Original copy of something, such as an audio or videotape recording or filmed production.
  14. Material Handling: Services performed by GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR that includes delivery of exhibit materials from the dock to assigned space, removing empty crates, returning crates at the end of the event for re-crating, and delivering materials back to the dock for carrier loading. It is a two-way charge, incoming and outgoing. Formerly known as DRAYAGE.
  15. Matte Screen: Screen having a flat or matte white finish which does not reflect as effectively as a glass-bead screen, but can be viewed from virtually all front angles.
  16. Matte White: Type of non-shiny screen surface used for front projection. It is the least expensive type of screen.
  17. Matte: Lusterless surface.
  18. Matzo Ball Soup: Jewish dish with large dumplings.
  19. Max Floor Plan: A computer assisted drawing showing the optimum utilization of a facility space for tradeshow layout of booths/stands.
  20. Maximum Permitted Mileage: The mileage a passenger is permitted to travel for a given fare.
  21. Maximum Pick-Up Number: Every week leading up to an event, the event organizer should receive a room pick-up report from each hotel involved in the event. One of those weeks will have a very high number (which is the maximum pick-up number). This information is important to include in a POST EVENT REPORT.
  22. Mbps: Megabits (millions of bits) per second. A rate of data transmission over a computer network.
  23. MC Cable: Flexible armored electrical cable accepted as insulated by most codes; two, three, or more wires available. See AC CABLE. See Also BX CABLE.
  24. MC: (em-see) See MASTER OF CEREMONIES. See Also EMCEE.
  25. MCO: Miscellaneous Charge Order. A document used by ticketing locations to record deposits, extra charges, hotel and pet fees, etc.
  26. Measurement Ton: A space measurement, usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic feet of space it occupies.
  27. Medallion: Small, round piece of meat.
  28. Media Kit: Packet of information that is supplied to the media; contains all the details of an event that are required to attract media attention and attendees.
  29. Mediation: Dispute resolution process in which the parties use a third party to assist them in reaching a compromise. The mediator may work with both sides together, or may act as “go between” in an attempt to move the sides toward agreement. The mediator may act informally, or be appointed by a judge or by agreement of the parties through an alternative dispute resolution organization like American Arbitration Association (AAA) or Judicial Arbitration and Mediation Service (JAMS). Unlike arbitration, a mediator is not empowered to impose a decision on the parties.
  30. Medical Meeting: An event whose attendees relate to the health care or medical research industries.
  31. Meet and Greet: Service for meeting and greeting a person upon arrival in a city, usually at the airport, pier or rail station and assisting him or her with entrance formalities, collecting baggage and obtaining transportation.
  32. Meeting Announcement: Leaflet or brochure with essentials about a coming event.
  33. Meeting Management Company: A company, representing another organization, handling site selection, negotiations and turnkey support for an event.
  34. Meeting Manager: See PLANNER.
  35. Meeting Point: Meeting place in venue for individual appointments of delegates.
  36. Meeting Profile: A written report outlining statistics of previous events, anticipated use of all services, profile of attendees, hotel occupancy patterns, etc.
  37. Meeting: An event where the primary activity of the attendees is to attend educational sessions, participate in meetings/discussions, socialize, or attend other organized events. There is no exhibit component to this event. Compare With CONVENTION, EXHIBITION, TRADE SHOW, CONSUMER SHOW.
  38. Meet-the-Press Set-Up: Panel set-up with questioners placed opposite guest panelists and moderator.
  39. Menu Pricing: A pricing plan that lets the organization see an itemized list of fees for goods and services.
  40. Merchandise Mart: Facility containing showrooms and offices with a modest amount of permanent space. Outside the United States, world trade centers showcase the exports of countries in buildings similar to merchandise marts.
  41. Mesclun: Field greens for salads.
  42. Message Board: An electronic message center or online discussion group, usually serving a special-interest group. They allow you to review messages left by others, and leave your own message if you choose. Also known as bulletin board systems or electronic forum. Also, a bulletin board on which messages can be tacked up.
  43. Message Center: A place where mail and messages are kept or transmitted.
  44. Metric: A system of weights and measures, based on decimals, used throughout much of the world. Basic units are the gram for weight and the meter for length. When calculating conversions, the same figure (0.236) is used whether converting to or from metric. The difference is that, when converting to metric (as from cups to liters), you multiply the number of cups by 0.236 to get the equivalent in liters. When converting from metric (as from liters to cups), you divide the liters by 0.236 to get the cup equivalency.
  45. Metropolitan Hotel: Hotel located in the downtown area of a large city; usually close to shopping and other points of interest.
  46. Meunière: Sautéed in butter with lemon and parsley and seasonings (most often served with sautéed fish as in Trout Meunière).
  47. MIC: Meetings Industry Council. Local gathering of meetings industry related groups for the purpose of promoting awareness of and partnership in the industry.
  48. Mic: MICROPHONE.
  49. MICE: Meeting, Incentive, Conference/Congress, & Exhibition. An internationally used term for the events industry.
  50. Microphone, Bipolar: See FIGURE EIGHT MICROPHONE.
  51. Microphone, Boom: MICROPHONE mounted on an extension.
  52. Microphone, Cardioid: Pronounced “car-dee-oid.” A MICROPHONE with a polar pattern that is heart-shaped. Cardioid microphones decrease gradually in sensitivity as they are rotated away from the source of sound they are aimed at.
  53. Microphone, Cordless: Portable MICROPHONE operating on its own power source. Often used to pass through an audience for questions or comments. Also Called WIRELESS MICROPHONE.
  54. Microphone, Figure 8: MICROPHONE with a sensitivity pattern shaped in a figure eight when seen from above.
  55. Microphone, Figure Eight: MICROPHONE with a sensitivity pattern shaped in a figure eight when seen from above.
  56. Microphone, Floor: MICROPHONE mounted on an adjustable floor stand and intended to remain in the same location throughout a presentation. Also Called STATIONARY OR STANDING MICROPHONE.
  57. Microphone, Hot: MICROPHONE that is turned on.
  58. Microphone, Lavaliere: A wired or wireless microphone that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a NECKLACE, LAPEL, or PENDANT MICROPHONE.
  59. Microphone, Lectern: MICROPHONE attached to a lectern. See LECTERN.
  60. Microphone, Lip: MICROPHONE designed for use in contact with the lips of the speaker.
  61. Microphone, Necklace: Portable MICROPHONE that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a LAVALIER, LAPEL, OR PENDANT MICROPHONE.
  62. Microphone, Omnidirectional: MICROPHONE that picks up sound from all directions.
  63. Microphone, Pendant: Portable MICROPHONE that hooks around the neck or is clipped to clothing. Sometimes called a NECKLACE, LAPEL, OR LAVALIER MICROPHONE.
  64. Microphone, PZM: Pressure Zone Microphone®. Also called a BOUNDARY Microphone. This type of microphones can be placed on a large surface such as a table, floor, wall, or lectern. It picks up sound from entire room and is often recommended for conferences, group discussions, interviews, lectures, and recordings.
  65. Microphone, Radio: MICROPHONE used for transmitting radio waves.
  66. Microphone, Roving: A small MICROPHONE, with or without a wire, which can be moved easily through an audience for questions or comments.
  67. Microphone, Shotgun: UNIDIRECTIONAL MICROPHONE that has a very narrow angle of sensitivity and can be used to collect sound from a distance because surrounding sounds are not heard.
  68. Microphone, Stationary or Standing: MICROPHONE mounted on an adjustable floor stand and intended to remain in the same location throughout a presentation. Also Called FLOOR MICROPHONE.
  69. Microphone, Table: MICROPHONE on a short stand placed on a table for seated speakers.
  70. Microphone, Unidirectional: MICROPHONE that picks up sound primarily from the direction in which it is pointed.
  71. Microphone, Wireless: Portable MICROPHONE operating on its own power source. Often used to pass through an audience for questions or comments. Also Called CORDLESS MICROPHONE.
  72. Microphone: Instrument which converts sound into electrical signals for transmitting or recording sound.
  73. Mid Office: A record finishing and quality control processing that occurs after the initial receipt in the front office. This processing is usually accomplished using software-based office products and MIS.
  74. Midget Microphone: Small microphone.
  75. Military Meeting: An event at which attendees are affiliated with one of the armed forces, or are suppliers to the armed forces.
  76. Minestrone: Italian vegetable soup.
  77. Minimum Call: Agreed upon minimum number of hours of work to be done by a worker under the labor agreement. In cases where the work to be done is shorter than the minimum call, the worker is guaranteed payment for the full minimum.
  78. Minimum Connecting Time: The minimum time required for carriers to transfer passengers and baggage from one flight to another
  79. Minimum Connecting Time: The minimum time required for carriers to transfer passengers and baggage from one flight to another.
  80. Minimum Truckload: Weight above which a shipment is charged at a truckload rate.
  81. Minimum: Smallest number of covers and/or beverage served at a catered event. A surcharge may be added to the client's bill if the minimum is not reached.
  82. Mini-Suite: See JUNIOR SUITE.
  83. Minny: Van shipment weighing 500 lbs. or less, for which the minimum charge is the 500-lb rate. Carrier minimums vary.
  84. MINT: Meeting Industry Network (formerly CINET or Convention Industry Network). On-line information network tracking historical and future site/booking information. CINET is provided by IACVB to its members.
  85. Minutes: Formal written record of a meeting.
  86. Misconnect: Insufficient time is allowed for connection between planes.
  87. Missed Connection: A term to describe the situation when a passenger fails to transfer to a flight.
  88. Mission (Sales): A promotional and sales trip coordinated by a state travel office, conventional and visitor’s bureau or key industry member to increase product awareness, sales and to enhance image. Target audiences may include tour operators, wholesales, incentive travel planners, travel agents, meeting planners, convention and trade show managers and media. Missions often cover several international or domestic destinations and include private and public sector participants. Mission components can include receptions, entertainment representatives of the destination, presentations and pre-scheduled sales and media calls.
  89. Mitre: The joint created when two pieces of material cut at equal angles butt together to form a corner.
  90. Mix: 1) Visual repetitive and/or alternating projection of two different slides on the screen used to add emphasis. 2) (Sound) adjustment of each microphone for volume and sound quality.
  91. Mixed Grill: A plate of grilled or broiled meats, which can include lamb chops, beef, bacon and sausages and is usually accompanied by grilled or broiled mushrooms, tomatoes and potatoes.
  92. Mixed Truckload: Truckload of different articles, crated and uncreated, in a single shipment.
  93. Mixer: Audio unit by which sound signals from all sources feed into one system; allows for dissimilar inputs (microphone and line) to be combined and controlled into one output. See SOUND BOARD.
  94. Mixing Board: See SOUND BOARD.
  95. Mixing: Combining audio or audio sources.
  96. Mock Bearnaise Sauce: Made by adding a tarragon reduction to mayonnaise, which is more stable than Hollandaise and therefore will not break. In off-premise catering, if sauce cannot be prepared on-site, mock bearnaise must be used because the real product will not travel without breaking.
  97. Mock-Up: A full-scale model of proposed structure.
  98. MOD: Manager on Duty. Person at a facility in charge of operations and/or guest relations for a certain period of time.
  99. Model: 1) An object made in miniature representing something to be constructed. 2) A person stationed in an exhibit to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth/stand or greets visitors. See TALENT.
  100. Modem: Modulator-demodulator. Computer component that enables a computer to send and receive data over telephone or cable lines.
  101. Moderator: Person who presides over panel discussions and forums.
  102. Modified American Plan: MAP. A type of room rate that includes breakfast and one other meal (usually dinner). See DEMI-PENSION. See Also AMERICAN PLAN, BERMUDA PLAN, CONTINENTAL PLAN, EUROPEAN PLAN.
  103. Modular Exhibit: An exhibit that uses standardized components (e.g., panels, frames) that can be assembled and reassembled in different configurations for different needs.
  104. Modular Panels: Partition units (walls, doorframes, etc.) in standard sizes, used for building booths/stands in the sizes desired in that context.
  105. Mom & Pop: A small, family-owned business. Often used in terms of a “Mom & Pop Exhibitor or Vendor."
  106. Monaural: Having one ear. Monaural headsets (with a single earpiece) are typically used by telephone operators, stage managers and disco operators.
  107. Monitor Mixing Console: Sound board used to regulate and mix sound heard on stage.
  108. Monitor: Television set with denser pixels and direct audio and video input.
  109. Monitor: Video or audio device used to maintain a reference on the sound or video that is being sent out to the audience. Audio feeds given to performers are also referred to as monitors but do not necessarily represent the sound sent to the audience. See CUE CHANNEL.
  110. Mono: See MONOPHONIC.
  111. Monochrome: Images reproduced on a black and white television system.
  112. Monophonic: Sound from one source, such as a single loudspeaker or earphone. In most concert performances, this is the type of sound provided to the audience. See PA SYSTEM.
  113. Montage: 1) Composite made by combining several separate pictures.2) Rapid succession of images to illustrate an association of ideas.
  114. MOR: Middle of the Road. A mixture of contemporary, top 40, and soft music.
  115. Moral Hazard: A condition of morals or habits that increases the probability of loss from a peril. An extreme example would be an individual who previously burned his own property to collect the insurance.
  116. Mornay Sauce: Cream sauce thickened with eggs and grated cheese.
  117. Motel: An establishment that provides housing with limited services for persons away from home. Also Called MOTOR INN.
  118. Motion: Formal proposal to be discussed and voted on in a meeting.
  119. Motor Coach Captain: Motor coach captains count passengers and are responsible for the safe loading and unloading of guests. They also assist field supervisors and venue managers.
  120. Motor Coach Field Supervisor: Person responsible for motor coaches arriving at/departing from a specific location. Coordinates with the route manager, provides updates and requests for additional motor coaches on route. Responsible for captains and human arrows at location.
  121. Motor Coach Shuttle System: A method or plan for an established, orderly transport of participants by buses between facilities.
  122. Motor Coach Tour Operator: A company that creates tours in which group members are transported via motorcoach to their destination, itinerary activities, and back.
  123. Motor Coach: A large, comfortable, well-powered bus that can transport groups and their luggage over long distances.
  124. Motor Inn: An establishment that provides housing with limited services for persons away from home. See MOTEL.
  125. Motorboating: Undesirable oscillation in an amplifying system or transducer, usually of a pulse type, occurring at a low audio frequency.
  126. Motorcoach: Deluxe equipment used by most tour operators in group tour programs. Amenities include reclining seats, bathrooms, air conditioning, good lighting and refreshment availability.
  127. MOU: Memo of Understanding
  128. Moussaka: Greek layered casserole with chopped meat and vegetables.
  129. Mousse: 1) Light, airy dessert dish made with beaten egg whites and whipped cream. 2) Finely ground meat, seafood, or poultry served in a mold.
  130. Mousseline: 1) Any sauce to which whipped cream or beaten egg whites have been added just prior to serving to give it a light, airy consistency. Mousseline sauce is hollandaise blended with whipped cream. 2) Various dishes based on meat, fish, shellfish or foie gras to which whipped cream or, less frequently, beaten egg whites are added to lighten the texture. 3) A term applied to any of various dishes or baked goods that have a light and delicate texture.
  131. Movable Wall: Walls or light movable panels used for dividing areas or concealing an area. See PARTITION. See Also AIR WALL.
  132. Move-In/Move-Out Dates: Dates set for installation/dismantling of an exhibition.
  133. Move-In: Dates set for installation. See SET-UP.
  134. Move-Out: Dates set for dismantling. Also Called TEAR DOWN.
  135. Moving Décor: Staff or actors in costume appropriate to a theme.
  136. Moving Screen: Screen intended to provide information and to notify participants who are called away for urgent reasons during the session, without disturbing the event.
  137. MPI: Meeting Professionals International. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  138. MPO: Marketing promotional opportunities. Sponsorship of logoed items (e.g. tote bags).
  139. Multi-Channel Tape: Tape having more than one channel on which to record.
  140. Multi-Channel: With two or more communication bands (receivers).
  141. Multi-Image Slide Presentation: Presentation using many slide projectors on one screen. The projectors are arranged so that, by fading from one projector to another, the program is presented. Often this is done on a screen that is wider than one slide image, in which case the images are registered together so as to allow one image to have a panoramic wide view. Most commonly these presentations are produced with a minimum of three projectors.
  142. Multi-Image: The protection of two or more images at one time; may be one or more screens.
  143. Multi-Management Firm: A company that offers complete turnkey organization support for an event, including administrative and event management services.
  144. Multimedia: Use of two or more audiovisual media in one presentation.
  145. Multiple Airport Cities: Cities offering multiple airports for scheduled airline service, e.g., New York has LaGuardia and JFK; Washington, D.C. has Dulles and Reagan National.
  146. Multiple Life Experiences: The experience that adult learners bring to the learning environment that may help or hinder their learning.
  147. Multiplexer: Unit designed for selective projection of 16mm film, 2-by-2 inch (5-by-5 centimeter) slides, or filmstrips into one television program.
  148. Multipoint Bridge: A service provider of videoconferencing which allows multiple sites to connect simultaneously. A bridge connects three or more tele- or videoconference sites for simultaneous communication.
  149. Multipurpose Center: Facility that either 1) is equipped in such a way as to allow multiple types of usage (e.g., equipped with telescoping seats adaptable floor rakes or slopes, etc.) or 2) combines many single-purpose buildings under one operation.
  150. Multipurpose Facility: 1) A facility that can be reconfigured for another use; for example, an arena that can be converted to an exhibit hall by retracting seats. 2) A building complex containing several different types of facilities, such as a convention center, arena, and theater.
  151. Multi-Screen: The use of two or more screens at the same time. Also Called MULTIVISION.
  152. Multi-Sensory: Relating to or involving several physiological senses.
  153. Multi-Story Exhibit: An exhibit with more than two levels or stories. See DOUBLE DECKER.
  154. Multi-Track Conference: A conference with parallel program sessions where participants have the choice to follow one or the other road or to jump from one track to the other during the duration of the event.
  155. Multivision: See MULTI-SCREEN.
  156. Murphy Bed: Retractable bed built into the wall.
  157. Music License: Control of the performance of musical compositions by the composers and authors through granting of a license to perform. Controlled by the copyright laws. See ASCAP. See Also BMI.
  158. Music Licensing: The right granted by one party to let another party use live or recorded music through special agreements and fee structures.
  159. Music Stands: Sheet music holders of varying sizes requiring attached lights when used on darkened stage.
  160. Muslin: Wide-loomed fabric used for ceiling artwork.
  161. Mylar: Trade name for polyester sheeting, usually clear or decorative metallic reflective finish.
  162. NACE: National Association of Catering Executives. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  163. NACS: National Association of Consumer Shows.
  164. Name Card: Card placed on a banquet or event table, inscribed with the name of the person designated to sit at that place. See PLACE CARD. See Also TABLE TENT.
  165. Napery: Tablecloths, napkins, and other fabric table coverings.
  166. Napkin Fold: A decorative way of placing napkins at a place setting.
  167. Napoleon: Flaky, iced French pastry with cream or custard filling.
  168. National Electrical Code: A code issued by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association describing minimum wiring requirements on electrical installations. It includes sections on temporary installations (e.g. construction sites and trade shows), theatrical installations, as well as office, kitchen, and storage areas. The code does not carry the force of law unless adopted by the authority having jurisdiction.
  169. National Event: An event that draws a national audience. Typically more than 40% of attendees reside outside of a 400 mile (640 km) radius of the event city. See Also REGIONAL EVENT, STATE/PROVINCE EVENT, & LOCAL EVENT.
  170. National Union: Union having membership only within the United States.
  171. Naugahyde: A synthetic, leather-like material.
  172. NBTA: National Business Travel Association.
  173. NCBMP: National Coalition of Black Meeting Planners. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  174. NCR Form: Multi-page pressure-sensitive form where multiple copies are made by writing on the top copy of the form. NCR stands for No-Carbon Required.
  175. Near-Plant: A situation where a company’s travel reservations occur at a travel agency or within the company and ticketing occurs at the travel agency branch by travel agency personnel.
  176. Neck Microphone: Portable microphone that hooks around the neck.
  177. Negative Image: Reversed image of art or type.
  178. Neoprene: A rubberlike material.
  179. Nesting: Multiple objects fitting together in order to conserve space and improve safety for shipping or storage.
  180. Net Fee: The amount of his/her fee a speaker will actually receive for a booking after agency or bureau fees and before expenses.
  181. Net Net: Actual cost of a travel program excluding mark-ups or commissions.
  182. Net Rate: Non-commissionable rate.
  183. Net Rate: The rate provided to wholesalers and tour operators that can be marked up to sell to the customer.
  184. Net Square Feet/Meters: Actual amount of salable space used by exhibit booths/stands which excludes aisles, lounges, registration areas, etc. See GROSS SQAURE FEET/METERS (GSF OR GSM).
  185. Net Weight: Weight of goods without the shipping container.
  186. Net Wholesale Rate: A rate usually slightly lower than the wholesale rate. The rate is marked up by retail sellers, of the tour, to cover distribution, promotion, etc.
  187. Net Worth: Assets minus liabilities.
  188. Network: Two or more computers or peripherals that are linked together for the purpose of sharing data.
  189. Networking: The exchange of information or services among individuals, groups or institutions.
  190. Neutral Beverage: Non-alcoholic drink, including soda, juice, bottled water, etc.
  191. New England Clam Chowder: Clam soup made with milk and potatoes, as opposed to Manhattan Clam Chowder, which has a tomato base.
  192. New Registration: Generally, a registration received at the conference and sometimes incurring payment of a penalty fee. See ON-SITE REGISTRATION.
  193. News Release: See PRESS RELEASE.
  194. Newsgroups: On-line discussion groups. Newsgroups make up the worldwide bulletin board system called Usenet that contains more than 14,000 newsgroups that cover every imaginable interest group.
  195. Nineteen Hundred Box: Metal electrical junction-box normally accommodating electrical receptacles.
  196. NMFC: National Motor Freight Classifications.
  197. No Freight Aisle: Areas on the exhibit floor used as a thoroughfare, so crates are prohibited. Designated with red tape. An aisle that must be kept clear at all times during installation and dismantling.
  198. No Show: A customer with a reservation at a restaurant, hotel, etc. who fails to show up and does not cancel.
  199. Noise Floor: Intrinsic noise of an electronic device or system. The noise that remains in the absence of signal.
  200. Noise: Any unstructured and generally unwanted signal in an audio or video signal. Hum, buzz, hiss, crosstalk and rumble are typically classed as noise. See RANDOM NOISE. See Also WHITE NOISE, PINK NOISE.
  201. Noix: Walnuts.
  202. Nomenclature of the Customs Cooperation Council: The customs tariff used by many countries worldwide, including most European nations, but not the United States. It is also known as the Brussels Tariff Nomenclature. See STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION. See Also STANDARD INDUSTRIAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION.
  203. Non-Performance: To neglect to carry out an agreement.
  204. Non-Profit: An organization whose members may not benefit financially from its net proceeds.
  205. Non-Refundable Fare: A fare that, once issued, cannot be refunded. Most non-refundable tickets are re-usable to some degree and can be used toward future travel on the same carrier for the same passenger if rebooked prior to the original date of travel.
  206. Non-Sked: Airline offering charter services on a non-scheduled basis.
  207. Non-Smoking Area: Room or area where smoking is prohibited.
  208. Non-Stop Flight: A flight from one city to another with no stops in between. Not to be confused with DIRECT FLIGHT.
  209. Non-Transferable: A ticket that cannot be changed to another name once issued.
  210. Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier: NVOCC. Transportation company that operates by obtaining wholesale space from other carriers and reselling it. Does not operate its own vehicles.
  211. No-Op: Flight not operating.
  212. Nori: Sheets of roasted seaweed used to wrap sushi (sticky rice and fish eaten raw).
  213. NOS: Not Otherwise Specified.
  214. No-Show: Reservation made, but not kept. Any person, group or exhibitor who fails to appear to claim a meal reservation, exhibit space or ordered service. Participant did not attend, nor cancel according to cancellation guidelines; an exhibitor that does not show up to claim booth/stand space; a hotel guest who does not honor a reservation; a speaker/entertainer who does not arrive.
  215. Not-for-Profit: An organization that exists with the intention of providing a service for its members
  216. Nouilles: Noodles.
  217. Nouvelle Cuisine: French for new cooking, referring to a culinary style, begun in the 1970s, that moved away from the rich, heavy style of classic French cuisine toward fresher, lighter food served in much smaller portions. The sauces are lighter because they're reduced instead of being thickened with flour, butter and heavy cream. Vegetables are quickly cooked and are tender yet slightly crisp.
  218. NRA: National Restaurant Association.
  219. NSA: National Speakers Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  220. NSPF: Not Specifically Provided For.
  221. NTA: National Tour Association, comprised of domestic tour operators.
  222. Number Stand: Stand used to hold numbers designating specific meeting areas or reserved tables.
  223. NVOCC: Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier. See Also NON-VESSEL OPERATING COMMON CARRIER.
  224. O/A: Open Account.
  225. O/N: Order Notify.
  226. OAG ™: Official Airline Guide. Published in geographically oriented editions, it provides information relative to airline schedules as well as airports, types of equipment, connecting times, etc.
  227. Objective: Formalized statement of outcomes to be anticipated as a result of the educational process.
  228. O'Brien: Sautéed with onions and green peppers (e.g. Corn O'Brien).
  229. Observer: Delegate to an assembly who observes and reports but does not participate officially in its activities.
  230. Obstructed View: View of stage, from audience seating, which is blocked.
  231. Occupancies: A percentage indicating the number of bed nights sold (compared to number available) in a hotel, resort, motel or destination.
  232. Occupancy Rate: 1) In hotel/motel industry, the percentage of total number of available sleeping rooms actually occupied. Derived by dividing the total number of rooms occupied during a given time period (night, week, and year) by the total number of rooms available for occupancy during that same period. 2) Measurement of building use, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate comparing potential facility capacity to actual usage. See EXHIBITION OCCUPANCY.
  233. Ocean Bill of Lading: A bill of lading (B/L) indicating that the exporter consigns a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified international market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection document. If it is a "Straight B/L," the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a "Negotiable B/L" is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond, or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also INLAND BILL OF LADING, THROUGH BILL OF LADING.
  234. Octave: Doubling or halving of frequency. The numerical interval, for example, between 440 Hz and 880 Hz or 220 Hz is an octave.
  235. Oeuf: Egg.
  236. Off Camera: Performance or action not seen on camera, such as a narration.
  237. Off Premise Catering: Foods usually prepared in a central kitchen and transported for service to an off-site location.
  238. Off-Airport Location: Site of a car rental operation services ay an airport but not located on airport premises. Travelers are shuttled from the airport to the car rental site.
  239. Offer: A promise, proposal or other expression of willingness to make and carry out a contract under proposed terms with another party which has the ability to accept it upon receiving it. Space and rent proposal from a facility. It may be in the form of a contract or license agreement.
  240. Office Suite: Similar to a hospitality suite, but geared more exclusively toward typical office communications services (i.e. phone, fax, computer, and copier).
  241. Official Airline Guide: OAG™. Published monthly in several geographic editions, providing information on airline schedules as well as airports, types of equipment, connecting times, etc.
  242. Official Airline: Airline contracted by the sponsor of an event to provide special deals or amenities to attendees.
  243. Official Banquet: Formally seated evening dinner which is normally included in the registration fee and at which speeches are made.
  244. Official Carrier: Airline Company designated airline of choice for an event in exchange for special rates or services.
  245. Official Contractor: Organization appointed by show management to provide services such as set-up and tear-down of exhibit booths and to oversee labor, drayage and loading dock procedures. Also known as GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.
  246. Official Language: Language in which an organization states that it will conduct all of its business.
  247. Official Opening: Ceremony, ribbon cutting, etc. to proclaim event officially opened.
  248. Official Reception: Reception for conference participants hosted by local or governmental authorities or other officials.
  249. Official Supplier/ Contractor: A supplier appointed by the event organizer to be the preferred provider of a given service. See GENERAL SERVICE CONTRACTOR.
  250. Off-Line Connection: Connection through a particular city with a change of aircraft and continuing on same airline. See INTERLINE CONNECTION.
  251. Off-Line: 1) Non-route airline ticketing service. 2) Computer application performed while not connected to a computer network.
  252. Off-Season: See LOW SEASON.
  253. Offset: 1) A photographic printing process. 2) Transfer of freshly printed wet image onto back of another sheet of paper.
  254. Offshore Meeting: An event taking place outside of the country of the originating body.
  255. Off-Site: A term that describes any function or activity that occurs away from the primary event facility. Examples of its use include “Off-Site Food & Beverage,” “Off-Site Venue,” etc. See OFF PREMISE CATERING. Compare With ON-SITE.
  256. Offstage: Not in view of the audience.
  257. Oignon: French for onion.
  258. Oil Cloth: Waterproof material used for signs, banners, table coverings, etc.
  259. On Consumption: A term used in food and beverage that refers to the purchasing option based on the amount utilized by the group. The organization pays for the food and beverage based on the actual food and beverage served.
  260. On-Airport Location: A car rental operation at an airport terminal.
  261. On-Center: Refers to measurement of space from center of a solid object (such as a COLUMN) to another point.
  262. On-Demand: 1) The opposite of real-time. 2) Audio and/or video programming available on a Web site after the completion of an event, providing this content so Web site visitors can listen or view at their discretion. 3) FAX system for sending out faxed material upon request.
  263. One for Fifty: Often represented as 1/50. Facility complimentary room policy: one complimentary room night for every fifty room nights picked up and paid for. While 1/50 was once the standard, the complimentary policies vary per hotel and/or event.
  264. One Shot: Exhibit or display fabricated for one use only.
  265. One Ten/Sixty: Common term describing normally available current in North American Continent. The full expression is 110 volt/60 cycle. Many European and South American areas have 220 volt/50 cycle power only.
  266. One-Sheet: A one-sheet piece of printed advertising. These are often produced and distributed to help promote a speaker’s product or services.
  267. One-Stop-Shop: A single source provider of goods or services.
  268. On-Line Connection: 1) Change of planes on same airline. 2) Internet Service Provider or browser.
  269. Online Registration: Registration made via the Web.
  270. Online: 1) Connected to a computer network, such as the Internet. 2) Accessible via a computer or computer network.
  271. On-Site Management: Details that the event manager must supervise at the site of the event.
  272. On-Site Office: Organizations' temporary headquarters office that is set up on-site to handle business during the event.
  273. On-Site Order: See FLOOR ORDER.
  274. On-Site Registration: Process of signing up for an event on the day of, or at the site of, the event.
  275. On-Site: A term that describes any function or activity that occurs at the primary event facility. An example of its use is “On-Site Food & Beverage,” which is food and beverage ordered through a headquarters hotel’s catering department. See OFF PREMISE CATERING. Compare With OFF-SITE.
  276. Opaque Projector: Equipment designed to project the image of an opaque object, such as a sheet of paper.
  277. Open Bar: Private room bar set up where guests do not pay for drinks. See HOST BAR. See Also SPONSORED BAR.
  278. Open End: 1) Unlimited number of winners. See INCENTIVE TRAVEL. 2) Roundtrip airline ticket with no return date. 3) No final amount or date established.
  279. Open Insurance Policy: A marine insurance policy that applies to all shipments made by an exporter over a period of time rather than to one shipment only.
  280. Open Jaw: An itinerary with flights into one city and departure from another, e.g., travel from Dallas to Reno, return from Denver to Dallas.
  281. Open Seating: 1) Guests can sit anywhere. 2) Extra banquet tables are placed, but not fully set; these can be prepared quickly if there are more guests than expected.
  282. Open Shop: Company in which union membership is not a condition of employment. Usually, a company which has no union at all.
  283. Open Space Session: Breakout facilitation where topics for conversation emerge from the group. People who want to lead a conversation post discussion topics during a morning news gathering. Then, participants split up and go to the topic area they want to discuss. Everyone is asked to go to the topic that they have the most passion and interest around. The underlying assumption is that whoever shows up to the topic are the right people to be there. No assignments are made. Each group is asked to take notes so that they can share back or publish their ideas. Some people may decide to be "butterflies" moving from group to group over the course of the conversation time. If no one shows up it means that there is no interest in that topic. People can make more of a difference and have a greater impact on things that they are passionate about.
  284. Open Ticket: Ticket, valid for transportation between certain points, indicating no specific reservation.
  285. Open Union: Union which maintains no prohibitive restrictions for membership. It may be a union which agrees to accept any qualified employee of the employer as a member of the union.
  286. Open: Rooms are available for sale or occupancy.
  287. Open-Ended: Type of question format in which respondents are asked to communicate a response in their own words.
  288. Opening Address: Formal speech given at the commencement of a meeting to welcome participants; usually given by an eminent person. See KEYNOTE.
  289. Opening Ceremony: The formal general session at the beginning of a congress or convention.
  290. Opening Hours: Hours during which an exhibition is open to the public or trade visitors.
  291. Opening Session: Meeting or meetings of a predetermined period of time, which begin a congress or convention and in which the principal items on the agenda are usually introduced. Usually a general or plenary session.
  292. Operations Manager: Individual in charge of performing the practical and detailed work of program. See OPERATIONS.
  293. Operations: Performing the practical work of operating a program. Usually involves the in-house control and handling of all phases of the services, both with suppliers and with clients.
  294. Operator: A loose term that may mean Destination Management Company (DMC).
  295. Optical Sound: Sound that is recorded by photographic means on film.
  296. Opt-In: An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information. Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing. See PERMISSION MARKETING.
  297. Option Date: A prearranged date by which a hotel or facility will no longer hold tentative arrangements for a group.
  298. Option: 1) Space which is reserved but not yet contracted for. The right of first refusal to confirm a tentative space reservation if there is demand from another group. See TENTATIVE HOLD. 2) Options - Activities other than those included in the formal agenda which are optional and often require the payment of an additional participation fee done at the guest's discretion.
  299. Optional Tour: A TOUR or side trip offered at a designated date, time and price.
  300. OR: Owner’s Risk.
  301. Oral Presentation: Contribution made verbally.
  302. Oration: A formal and dignified public discourse.
  303. Orator: Someone who speaks eloquently in public.
  304. Order of Preference: A system which ranks dignitaries according to international protocol for purposes of seating, honors or ceremonies.
  305. Organizer: The entity that produces the event.
  306. Organizing Committee: A group of local people who carry out the strategies and policies established for the organization of an event held in their geographic area. See LOCAL HOST. See Also EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE.
  307. Organizing Secretariat: Staff providing secretarial services to the organizer.
  308. Original Language: Initial language in which a document is drafted or a speech is delivered.
  309. OS&D: Over, Short and Damage.
  310. Oscillation: Moving back and forth in the same path. May also refer to electric voltages that move back and forth through a zero voltage reference.
  311. Oscillator: Device that oscillates. Sound is the oscillation of air caused by a mechanical oscillation such as that from a moving piano string or drum head. An electronic oscillator is a device containing circuits designed to produce electrical oscillations that are maintained, usually at constant amplitude, and may have other specific characteristics that suit them for use as circuit test signals.
  312. Oscilloscope: Electronic test instrument which produces a visible image of electrical signals such as oscillations or waveforms on a viewing screen.
  313. OSHA: Occupational Safety and Health Act.
  314. OT Labor: Work performed on overtime, billed at either time-and-one-half or twice the published labor rates.
  315. OT: 1) Overtime. 2) On Truck or Railway.
  316. OTR: Over the Road. Freight that moves on the road, typically shipped directly to the convention center.
  317. Out of Order: OOO. Room under renovation or requiring maintenance.
  318. Out Take: Taped or filmed scenes not used in the final production.
  319. Outbound Operator: A company that takes groups from a given city or country to another city or country.
  320. Outbound Tour: Any tour that takes groups outside a given city or country to another city or country. Compare With INBOUND TOUR.
  321. Outlets: 1) Electrical outlets. 2) Restaurants, lounges or retail stores within a facility.
  322. Out-Plant: Company’s travel reservations occur at company’s travel department staffed by company; ticketing occurs at travel agency.
  323. Outside Exhibit: Booth/stand located outdoors.
  324. Outside Line: Telephone line from in-house phone to the outside (off-property) phone, obtained through the in-house operator.
  325. Outside Vendor: Supplier who is not directly associated with the facility.
  326. Outsource: To subcontract a task or responsibility to a supplier to handle some aspect of an event.
  327. Outsourcing: Hiring an outside firm or individual to perform the task instead of using in-house staff; to subcontract a task or responsibility to a third party.
  328. Overage: Surplus, excess, or extra.
  329. Overbooked: 1) A Hotel accepting sleeping room reservations for more hotel sleeping rooms than are available; guests overstay leaving less room inventory for new guests. 2) Oversold airline flights.
  330. Overbooking: The practice of confirming more seats or rooms than are actually available. Suppliers state they must overbook to compensate for the high rate of no-show passengers.
  331. Overflow: Attendees booked into other facilities after headquarters facilities are full.
  332. Overhead Projector: Equipment which projects an image on a screen by passing light through a transparent slide or other transparency.
  333. Overhead: 1) The general continuing costs involved with running a business. 2) Sheet of clear acetate on which images are prepared for overhead projection.
  334. Overlay: 1) Clear acetate film used to separate different components of art work. 2) Tissue sheet over artwork on which corrections or alterations are indicated. 3) A panel mounted to another surface. 4) A second, smaller tablecloth used for decorative purposes at banquets. See DOUBLE CLOTH.
  335. Overnight Service: Relates to airfreight service. Overnight does not necessarily mean 24-hour delivery as carriers deal in business days. For example, unless a Saturday or Sunday delivery is specifically requested, tendering an overnight shipment to a carrier on a Friday provides for a Monday delivery. In addition, a shipment might not move until the following day, depending on the time of day it is picked up or loaded. For example, an overnight shipment picked up from a show site at 10:00 pm on Tuesday may not be delivered until Thursday.
  336. Overnight Stays: The total nights spent by an attendee at a housing facility during an event, and before and after the event.
  337. Override: A commission over and above the normal base commission percentage.
  338. Over-Set: Number of covers set over the guarantee. Paid for by the client only if actually consumed.
  339. Oversold: Number of confirmed reservations exceeds number of seats on the aircraft. See OVERBOOKED.
  340. Overstay: A guest who stays at a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days longer than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called STAY OVER, UNDER DEPART. Compare With UNDERSTAY.
  341. Overtime: Time worked by an employee outside of, or in addition to, regular working time or beyond the standard forty-hour workweek.
  342. PA System: Facility's in-house public-address system.
  343. Pacing: Fullness or emptiness, fastness or slowness of a tour itinerary. The scheduling of activities within an itinerary to make for a realistic operation and to give a certain balance of travel time sightseeing, social events and free time and rest.
  344. Package Plan: A preassembled assortment of services offered to the exhibitor at a fixed price. In catering, refers to purchasing liquor and/or food at a set price per person. For event management, it is providing furniture and/or services to exhibitors for a single fee.
  345. Package Tour: A travel offering which provides, at an inclusive price, several travel components that a traveler would otherwise purchase separately.
  346. Package: 1) A combination of benefits received by workers as a result of collective bargaining. A package may include wage increases and other benefits or monetary value, such as insurance, paid holidays, paid vacations, and sick leave. The parties agree to a specified amount of increase to be partly applied to rates of pay and partly to the financing of the related benefits. 2) A single-fee booth/stand package offered by event management which might include booth/stand space, one electrical outlet, one table, two chairs and one hour of labor. 3) Tour arrangements combined and sold at a single all-inclusive price.
  347. Package: A fixed price salable travel product that makes it easy for a traveler to buy and enjoy a destination or several destinations. Packages offer a mix of elements like transportation, accommodations, restaurants, entertainment, cultural activities, sightseeing and car rental.
  348. Packager: 1) An individual or organization that coordinates and promotes the development of a package tour and establishes operating procedures and guidelines for that tour. 2) Company that organizes speakers’ demo tapes, press kits, etc. for a fee.
  349. Packet Switching: The method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into chunks. Each chunk has both an origination and destination address.
  350. Packet: The unit of data sent across a packet-switching network. It contains a destination address.
  351. Packing Case: See SHIPPING CASE. See Also CRATE.
  352. Packing List: A list showing the number and kinds of items being shipped, as well as other information needed for transportation purposes.
  353. Pad Thai: Thai noodle dish.
  354. Pad Wrap: See BLANKET WRAP.
  355. Pad: 1) To apply attenuation to a signal (e.g. line level to mic level pad.) A very commonly overlooked problem in audio when interfacing VCRs etc. to mic level inputs in ballrooms, event rooms, etc. A pad can be applied most often by using a 'filter direct box'. 2) A tablet of paper placed on the table for classroom or conference seating.
  356. Padded Van Shipment: Shipment, by moving van, of crated or uncrated goods such as large pieces of furniture or display material.
  357. Padding: 1) Usually blanket protection for uncrated material. 2) Slipping extra (unwarranted) charges onto an invoice.
  358. Padlock Removable lock with a shackle that can be passed through a staple, ring, or link and then closed securely.
  359. Pads: Commonly referred to as moving blankets, these have cotton fill and quilted design to keep filler in place and protect shipments.
  360. Paella: Spanish rice dish.
  361. Pager: Portable, wireless unit that can receive a signal and brief voice or text message.
  362. Paid Out: In-house facility form authorizing cash withdrawal to be charged to master account or individual guest.
  363. Paid-in-Advance Registration: Full payment for anticipated room and tax charges at registration; credit for incidentals is not extended. See CASH REGISTRATION.
  364. Pain Grillé: Toasted bread.
  365. Pain: Bread.
  366. Pallet Wrap: Process of wrapping loose items on pallet with transparent plastic wrapping.
  367. Pallet: Wooden platform used to carry goods. See SKID.
  368. Pan Pot: Two-circuit volume control used to place the auditory image of a sound from a mixer channel between the left and right speakers.
  369. Pan: Panorama. Sideways movement of a camera to film a wide scene.
  370. Panaché: Mixed vegetables (usually two vegetables).
  371. Pane: Prepared with bread crumbs.
  372. Panel Discussion: Instructional technique using a group of people chosen to discuss a topic in the presence of an audience.
  373. Panel Dolly: L-shaped dolly with wheels on both the vertical and horizontal sides. Used for moving display panels.
  374. Panel System: A prefabricated exhibit composed of connected panels of various sizes and shapes.
  375. Paper Ticket: A physical ticket that is issued and presented to the airline representative in exchange for a boarding pass.
  376. Par Lamp: A lamp shaped like an automobile headlight that consists of a tungsten source housed in an enclosed lens, which produces a rectangular beam.
  377. PAR: 1) Common term for sealed beam spot or flood lamp with self-contained lens surfaced glass. 2) In golf, one less than bogey.
  378. Parabolic Screen: Type of front projection screen surface which is rigid and allows only narrow angle viewing.
  379. Parallax: Illusion of opacity resulting from the juxtaposition of translucent or polarized surfaces. Also achieved when rows of panels or fins are spaced in such a way as to be seen through when viewed directly, but that appear to be opaque when viewed from an angle.
  380. Parallel Session: Session which has some correspondence, similarity, or analogy of subject and aim is simultaneous with another session.
  381. Parcan: A 150 watt to 1000 watt lighting instrument that acts like a floodlight providing an even light over a specific area; frequently seen in polished aluminum version, hanging in large groups from a ground support or flying truss system.
  382. Parking Attendant: A person who is employed to assist people in parking their motor vehicles in a designated area.
  383. Parlor Suite: Hotel living room, usually with a hide-a-bed sofa, connected to an adjoining sleeping room.
  384. Parlor: Room, usually equipped with couches that make into beds, connected to a suite bedroom.
  385. Parmentier: Served with potatoes.
  386. Participant: A person who takes part in an event. Compare With ATTENDEE.
  387. Participatory Learning: Occurs when the participants share knowledge, experience and work together to learn.
  388. Particle Board: A structural panel of compressed glued wood chips.
  389. Partition: See DIVIDER. See Also MOVABLE WALL, SCREEN.
  390. Party Planner: Similar to corporate-event producer or DMC. Works with noncorporate clients to design and implement private parties.
  391. Pascal: The unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI). In the United States, PSI (Pounds per Square Inch) is used instead. See PSI.
  392. Pass: Identification card to enable exhibitors to gain access to an exhibition.
  393. Passive Crossover: Electrical device composed of coils of wire (inductors) and electrical capacitors, that separates audio frequency bands by filtering action and routes them to different places (such as a woofer and tweeter). The frequency of the crossover’s action is determined by the value of the electronic components inside, and by the loudspeaker driver’s impedance in ohms, which implies that replacing a 16-ohm driver in a particular system with an 8-ohm driver will change the crossover frequency. In such a case, the frequency will rise an octave and the shape of the crossover frequency response slopes will be distorted. Also Called HIGH-LEVEL CROSSOVER.
  394. Passive Language: Language into which interpretation is provided.
  395. Passport: A government issued document that allows the citizen of one country to travel into other countries. Required for all international travel.
  396. Passport: Government document permitting an individual to leave and re-enter his/her country of legal residence.
  397. Pasta: Italian for paste, includes spaghetti, rigatoni, mostaccioli, elbows, bowties, fettucini and many other varieties of dried paste.
  398. Paste-Up: Arrangement of type and illustrations on an art board.
  399. Pastry Cart: Selection of desserts on a rolling serving cart.
  400. Patch Bay: See PATCH PANEL.
  401. Patch Panel: Plug and jack assembly permitting studio outlets to be temporarily connected to dimmer outlet circuits; also found in studio sound systems. Also Called PATCH BAY.
  402. Patch: 1) To temporarily join wires or slides by overlapping. 2) Plug-in connection between two lines.
  403. Pâté de Foie Gras: (paw tay de foy graw) Paste made from goose liver.
  404. Pâté: A combination of finely ground meats and spices forming a loaf. Some pates are spreadable, some are sliced. Classical meats used include goose liver, duck liver, chicken liver, and veal. Usually served as an appetizer.
  405. Patron: 1) Guest or Customer. 2) Person who heads a list of supporters.
  406. Patronage: Referring to an established customer base.
  407. Pattern of Event Dates: The dates during which an event can be conducted. May be designated by specific dates, months, or seasons (Spring, Fall, etc.). An example description is “September 1 - October 30 (excluding Labor Day, Jewish Holidays). This annual meeting must begin on Thursday and end on Saturday.”
  408. Pavilion: 1) A designated area within the event highlighting a special product category for marketing and exposure. 2) A group presentation of different companies for the purpose of generating collected impact.
  409. PAX: Industry abbreviation for passengers.
  410. Pay Own: Each guest pays own guest charges. See EPO.
  411. Payment Authorization: Signed authority to proceed with the payment of an invoice.
  412. Payment Order: Written authorization for payment to be made.
  413. Pay-Per-View: 1) Some Web-based content such as event Webcasts are made available to online customers on a pay-per-view basis, which means that customers have to pay to access this programming. 2) Video productions accessible to customers who pay for access to this programming.
  414. PBX Operator: Switchboard operator.
  415. PCMA: Professional Convention Management Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  416. PCO: Professional Congress Organizer. European term for DMC (Destination Management Company). Local supplier who can arrange, manage and/or plan any function or service an event.
  417. PD: See PER DIEM.
  418. Peach Melba: A classic dessert of ice cream served on a peach half and topped with raspberry syrup and whipped cream.
  419. Peak Night: Referring to the night during an event when most rooms are occupied by those in attendance.
  420. Peak Season: See HIGH SEASON.
  421. Peaks and Valleys: The high and low end of the travel season. Travel industry marketers plan programs to build consistent year-round business and event out the “peaks and valleys.”
  422. Peaks: Chart or list of AV equipment usage shown as daily totals throughout the duration of an event.
  423. Pêche: Peach.
  424. Pedestal: A floor support for an exhibit component.
  425. Pegboard Panel: Framed panel of perforated hardboard.
  426. Pegged Off: An object mounted away from supporting surface with spacers.
  427. Peking Duck: Chinese recipe.
  428. Penalty: The fee imposed by an airline to change or cancel flights once the ticket (usually a discounted advance purchase) has been issued.
  429. Pending Registration: Incomplete registration where the fees, full payment or forms have not been received. Also Called PROVISIONAL REGISTRATION.
  430. Peninsula Booth/Stand: An exhibit with aisles on three sides.
  431. Peninsula: Two or more exhibit spaces back to back with an aisle on three sides. Also Called END CAP.
  432. Penthouse Suite: Guest rooms and connecting parlors located on the top floors of a facility.
  433. People Magnets: Promotional ideas and devices that have a compelling ability to draw audiences.
  434. Per Diem: Per day. Some event attendees, such as government employees, have a limited amount of money they can spend per day on food and other expenses. Daily allowance for items like food, lodging, etc.
  435. Per Person: 1) Daily allowance for things like food, lodging, etc. 2) Goods or services priced and/or purchased according to the number of guests expected to attend the event.
  436. Per Room Rate: A flat rate charged for a room regardless of the number of occupants.
  437. PER: Post Event Report. A report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete history for an event. See POST EVENT REPORT.
  438. Percent of the Gross: Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the gross income for that service. This type of agreement is often used by facilities as the rental.
  439. Percent of the Net: Type of payment involving a fixed percent of the net income after costs of providing that service. This type of payment is often used in services provided by exclusive contractors within a facility.
  440. Percentage of Change Formula: Formula used to establish the variability in cost for future facility services.
  441. Percentage: A payment of a percentage of total billings as a condition of getting a contract for work; commission.
  442. Perfect Binding: Binding process by which pages are glued together.
  443. Performing Rights Societies: Societies whose purpose is to provide collective licensing for copyrighted music. Examples include BMI and SESAC.
  444. Perimeter Booth/Stand: Exhibit space located on an outside wall. See BACKWALL BOOTH/STAND.
  445. Perimeter Seating: Seating arrangement in which chairs are placed around the walls of a room. The chairs are often meant for spectators to observe an activity or event in the center of the room.
  446. Peripheral Block: A group of rooms that is reserved by a party outside of the ECB but is present in the city as a result of the Main Event (for example, some exhibitors, some international tour groups). A Peripheral Block’s consumed room nights should be credited to the Main Event’s total room nights for historical tracking purposes. A Peripheral Block may be used to help offset attrition charges against the ECB A Peripheral Block usually negotiates its own terms (for example, 1/50, staff rate, etc.). How do you identify Peripheral Blocks? Event organizers should require each contracted housing facility to report (to the event organizer) what groups are in-house at the same time as the Main Event. Each housing facility should include tour and travel, and wholesalers’ reservations which were booked individually over the dates of the Main Event. See also EVENT-CONTRACTED BLOCK.
  447. Peripheral: Piece of computer equipment intended to increase the function of the system (printer, CD-ROM, etc); audiovisual aids used in an event room.
  448. Perk: Payment, benefit, or privilege received in addition to regular income or salary. See PERQUISITE.
  449. Permanent Exhibit: A product display held on a long-term basis, i.e., museum exhibit, office exhibit, mart, showroom, etc.