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ESL Guide

Hospitality & Food Service Mgmt, pg. 7

  1. Permanent Import: In case of sales, with payment of duties and value added tax (VAT), or in case of free distribution, disposable or consumables usually exempted from payment of duties and VAT depending on each country. Quantity and value exempted at discretion of customs authorities.
  2. Permanent Office: Appointment on a permanent basis to a specific responsibility within an organization; work space existing for a long time.
  3. Permission Marketing: An email marketing campaign that only sends messages to users who have requested (or opted-in) to receive specific types of information. Email conference reminders and newsletters are examples of opt-in email marketing campaigns based upon permission marketing. See OPT-IN.
  4. Permit Card: Card granting temporary employment rights to a non-union member, issued by a union having a closed contract with an employer.
  5. Perquisite: Perk. Payment, benefit, or privilege received in addition to regular income or salary.
  6. Person Trip Visit: Every time a person travels more than 100 miles (round-trip) in a day or stays overnight away from their primary domicile, whether for business or leisure purposes, they make one “person trip visit.”
  7. Personal Manager: Manager of individual artist or group of artists.
  8. PERT Chart: Organizational flow chart defining responsibilities, due dates and other information.
  9. PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Techniques.
  10. Petite Marmite: French soup with small pieces of beef and vegetables, served in small covered pots with toast float.
  11. Phantom Power: Method of providing power to a microphone through the microphone cord that may otherwise need a battery in a power supply case.
  12. Phased Budget: Estimated total of revenue and expenditure; divided into subject categories projecting cash needed to meet expenses over a specific time frame. See CASH FLOW CHART. See Also BUDGET.
  13. Phosphorescent Paint: A paint that radiates visibly when activated by ultraviolet light.
  14. Photo Screen: A stencil made photographically for silk screen reproduction.
  15. Photostat: A reproductive process employing paper negatives.
  16. Phyllo: Flaky pastry dough.
  17. Physical Factors: The architectural design, furnishing, temperature, and other such factors that impact the learning environment.
  18. Physical Hazard: Specific tangible conditions that increase the likelihood that a loss will be greater in severity.
  19. Physiological Factors: Factors related to age, memory span, etc, that impact how an adult learns.
  20. Phytosanitary Inspection Certificate: A certificate, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, to satisfy import regulations of other countries, indicating that a U.S. shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful plant diseases.
  21. Piano Hinge: Continuous fixed pin hinge.
  22. Piano Types: Pianos vary in size and quality: concert grand, baby grand, spinet, and upright.
  23. Pica: Unit to measure type line length. Approximately 1/6 inch (.43 centimeter).
  24. Picket: An organized method of protest usually involving signs, handling out literature, shouting and other disruptive activities.
  25. Pick-Up: Number of facility guest rooms actually used out of a room block.
  26. Pièce de Resistance: Main course of a meal. Called the entree in U.S.
  27. Pied Piper: An individual with a following. Used in the travel industry to refer to a person who may recruit a group. See GROUP LEADER.
  28. Pier Demurrage: A charge assessed when the container is removed from the carrier’s control and is not returned within the allowable free time. See CONTAINER DETENTION.
  29. Pierogi: A thin layer of dough, wrapped around a filling, such as cabbage, potato, cheese, prune, etc.
  30. Piggy-Back: Describes the act of loading freight on trailers, then shipping the trailers on specially designed rail cars.
  31. Pilaster: A rectangular column that usually projects about a third of its width from the wall to which it is attached.
  32. Pillow Gift: An in-room amenity left in the evening while an event is underway, that the attendee will discover upon returning to the room. Can be gifts from sponsors, etc.
  33. Pink Noise: Filtered white noise that exhibits a constant power in any band of frequencies of the same span percentage. Pink noise is used extensively as an audio measurement signal source because of its uniform power-per-bandwidth characteristic, and it has been suggested that music source material, averaged over a log time period, is roughly equivalent to pink noise in spectral energy distribution. See NOISE.
  34. Pipe & Drape: Light-weight aluminum tubing and drapery used to separate exhibit booths/stands, staging areas, and other similar locations.
  35. Piquant: (peek aunt) Spicy; highly seasoned.
  36. Pit: Sunken area in front of the stage used to accommodate the orchestra.
  37. Pita: Envelope or pocket bread.
  38. Pitch: 1) Distance between rows of seats on an aircraft. 2) The determining factor of the key of a melody. 3). The adjustable, vertical angle of a given piece of presentation equipment (e.g. a screen, camera or projector).
  39. Pixie Tubes: Special high intensity lamps with internal circuits and filaments in shape of numerals.
  40. Place Card: Card placed on the banquet table, inscribed with the name of the person designated to sit at that place.
  41. Place of Birth: Denotes place of birth (not necessarily nationality).
  42. Place Setting: Another name for cover (a combination of flatware, glassware, china and napery).
  43. Plan: A top view mechanical drawing.
  44. Planagement: Term coined to represent good management through proper planning.
  45. Planner: Person whose job it is to oversee and arrange every aspect of an event. Person can be an employee or hired ad hoc by large companies, professional associations, or trade associations to plan, organize, implement, and control meetings, conventions, and other events.
  46. Planning Matrix: A grid used to plan meeting formats and finalize subject areas, topics and assignments.
  47. Planting: The use of trees and plants to enhance the appearance of an exhibit or a stage.
  48. Plastic Laminate: Any one of several of the melamine plastics bonded to paneling for durability and appearance.
  49. Plateau: Level, stage, or tier of an incentive travel program at which sales goal has been reached, and participant can then advance to a higher tier by additional qualifying or buy-in.
  50. Plated Buffet: Selection of preplated foods and entrees set on a buffet table. Can also be set on a roll-in cart.
  51. Plated Service: Foods arranged on individual plates in the kitchen and then served to guests seated at a table. See AMERICAN SERVICE.
  52. Platform: Raised horizontal surface, stage, or flooring.
  53. Play On/Off: Music which accompanies a performer’s or speaker’s entrance/exit onto or from the stage.
  54. Player-Recorder: Machine which can be used both for recording tapes and for playing back prerecorded tapes.
  55. Plenary Session: General assembly for all participants.
  56. Plexiglas: A trade name for acrylic plastic material in common use.
  57. Plug Strip: This is a power strip that can be plugged into a 120-volt power supply and allows up to six items to be plugged in. It has its own surge protector built inside and they are used in lieu of cube taps and cobra head extension cords.
  58. Plug: An advertisement, not in the form of a formal ad, but usually a mention—either written or in a publication or given verbally from the platform to help promote a product, service, or individual.
  59. Plug-In: Extends the capabilities of a Web browser, allowing the browser to run multimedia files. A (usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger piece of software.
  60. Plumber: Trade person responsible for all plumbing installation.
  61. Plus Plus: Addition of taxes and service charges to a price when not included, designated by + +.
  62. Plywood: Laminated wood of an odd number of sheets glued together. Often used in exhibit construction.
  63. PNR: Passenger Name Record. A record a travel counselor creates in a CRS / GDS when making a reservation for a traveler. It contains information about a traveler's itinerary that includes the identifying code letters and numbers assigned to the reservation. The PNR forms the basic unit of information from which travel management reports are compiled. See also SABRE.
  64. Pocket Program: At-a-glance program. A shortened version of the event program giving basic information in a way which is easy to refer to and convenient to carry. See AT-A-GLANCE PROGRAM.
  65. Podium: Raised platform where a speaker stands when delivering his or her remarks. Often confused with LECTERN. See Also DAIS, RISER.
  66. Point Source: Sound originating from a single source, or as if from a single source, and filling an entire space. This type of sound system is most often seen in a concert configuration, where the stage and sound system is at one end of the room and no additional sources of sound are used.
  67. Point: 1) Measurement of type size. Twelve points equal one pica—approximately 1/6 inch (.43 centimeter). 2) A city, town, village, or other community or area which is treated as a unit for the application of freight rates.
  68. Point-of-Purchase: Display to show product, where sales can be made.
  69. Point-to-Multipoint Videoconference: A videoconference of more than two sites.
  70. Poire: Pear.
  71. Pois: (pwas) Peas.
  72. Poisson: (pwa son) Fish.
  73. Polar Pattern: Performance of a speaker or sensitivity of a microphone as if seen on a circular graph with the device being in the center and the pattern representing the distance from the device at which equal performance can be obtained around a circle.
  74. Polar Response: See POLAR PATTERN.
  75. Poly: See VISQUEEN.
  76. Pomme de Terre: Potato (literally, apple of the earth).
  77. Pomme: Apple.
  78. Pommes au Four: Potatoes baked in their skins.
  79. Pommes Nouvelle: New potatoes.
  80. Pommes Purées: Mashed potatoes.
  81. Pop-Up: Lightweight display normally shipped in molded plastic crates. See PORTABLE EXHIBIT.
  82. Port of Entry: Destination providing customs and immigration services.
  83. Portable Exhibit: An exhibit that "pops-up" or a self-contained exhibit that is lightweight and easily set up.
  84. Portable Exhibit: Lightweight crated display units which do not require forklifts to move them.
  85. Portal: 1) Entry, doorway. 2) A Web site or service that offers a broad array of resources and services, such as email, forums, search engines, and online shopping malls to attract and retain a large audience.
  86. Porters: 1) Staff which carry luggage for guests using trains, planes, and hotels. 2) Staff which perform cleaning duties.
  87. Portrait: 1) Document or sign with greater height than width. Opposite of Landscape. 2) Likeness of a person in a painting or photograph.
  88. Positive: 1) Favorable condition/outcome. 2) Exact image of copy as distinguished from reverse image or negative.
  89. Post As: Instructions to a facility indicated the exact way a specific function should be listed on the facility’s reader board.
  90. Post Conference: Any event which is arranged for the period immediately following the conference proper.
  91. Post Convention Report: See POST EVENT REPORT.
  92. Post Event Report: PER. The industry preferred term for a report of the details and activities of an event. A collection of post event reports over time will provide the complete History for an event. The industry accepted practice is to use the APEX POST EVENT REPORT, which can be found at the Convention Industry Council (
  93. Post: Metal upright used to support drapes.
  94. Post-Con Meeting: A meeting at the primary facility at which an event occurred just after it has ended. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on evaluating the implementation of the event and completing the APEX POST EVENT REPORT. It often includes a final review of bills with accounts payable. Compare With PRE-CON MEETING.
  95. Post-Conference Registration: Registration for an activity or function which follows an event.
  96. Post-Conference Reservation: Guest room space following a conference.
  97. Post-Consumer Material: An end product that has completed its life cycle as a consumer item and would otherwise have been disposed of as a solid waste. Post-consumer materials include recyclables collected in commercial and residential recycling programs, such as office paper, cardboard, aluminum cans, plastics and metals.
  98. Poster Board: Soft board panel, used for displaying copy and/or graphics.
  99. Poster Exhibition: Area with display of posters.
  100. Poster Presentations: Informal sessions near poster exhibition to present and discuss contents of posters.
  101. Poster Session: 1) Display of reports and papers, usually scientific, accompanied by authors or researchers. 2) A session dedicated to the discussion of the posters shown inside the meeting area. When this discussion is not held in a special session, it can take place directly between the person presenting the poster and interested delegate(s). See ABSTRACT BOARD.
  102. Poster: Visual presentation of a specified size, presented on a flat sheet of paper or card, with details of a specific topic.
  103. Postgraduate Refresher Course: Continuing education courses often provided for professional accreditation purposes, and designed to enhance professional knowledge, or reinforce information originally taught as part of a degree program.
  104. Potable: 1) (Adjective) A word used to describe a liquid suitable for drinking, e.g. potable water. 2) (Noun) Any beverage, particularly those containing alcohol.
  105. Potage: Soup.
  106. POV Line: Special loading dock reserved for POVs where material is unloaded at prevailing drayage rates.
  107. POV: Privately Owned Vehicle. A vehicle, such as a passenger car, van or small company vehicle, as distinguished from tracks, tractor-trailers and other over the road vehicles.
  108. Pow Wow: The largest international travel marketplace held in the United States, sponsored by the Travel Industry Association of America.
  109. Power Bandwidth: Frequency range over which a power amplifier can produce at least half power (-3dB). This important specification is the actual indication of an amplifier’s true power output capability, since many amplifiers are capable of much higher power outputs if frequency extremes such as those produced by music are ignored.
  110. Power of Attorney: An instrument in writing whereby one person, as principal, appoints another as his agent and confers authority to perform certain specified acts or kinds of acts on behalf of the principal.
  111. Power Response: Measure of a loudspeaker’s output with reference to its electrical input. Power response includes the total sound energy radiated into the acoustic space around the loudspeaker rather than just on-axis. Flat power response would indicate that a loudspeaker is radiating equal energy into all angles at all frequencies.
  112. Power Strip: A cord connected unit having multiple electrical outlets, and over current protection.
  113. Practical Demonstration: A special sitting for the demonstration of specific methods.
  114. Pre- & Post Trip Tours: Optional extension or side trip package before or after a meeting, gathering, or event.
  115. Pre- or Post-Event Tour: Organized outing taking place before (Pre-) or after (Post-) an event for both attendees and accompanying persons. See TOUR.
  116. Pre-Assigned Seating: Predetermined seat assignments.
  117. Pre-Block: Assigning a specific guest room prior to the arrival of the guest.
  118. Pre-Con Meeting: A meeting at the primary facility at which an event will take place just prior to the event beginning. Attendees generally include the primary event organizer, representatives of the event organizer/host organization, department heads at the facility, other facility staff as appropriate, and contractors. The agenda focuses on reviewing the purpose and details of the event and making final adjustments as needed. Compare With POST-CON MEETING.
  119. Prefab: Pre-built exhibit ready for installation.
  120. Preferred Carrier: Carriers that have alliances with exposition service firms and general service contractors. They receive preferential treatment, and some discounts may be obtained by using these carriers.
  121. Preferred Supplier: Travel companies with which a corporation signs agreements to provide travelers with discounted rates.
  122. Pre-Finished Paneling: Factory finished panels.
  123. Pre-Formed Group: A tour group in existence prior to the tour, the members of which share a common bond, interest or organization affiliation. See AFFINITY GROUP. Examples of pre-formed groups include civic clubs, senior citizen groups and alumni associations.
  124. Pre-Function Space: Area adjacent to the main event location. Often used for receptions prior to a meal or coffee breaks during an event. See FOYER.
  125. Preliminary Draft: First draft. The first version of a paper or document which is subject to further amendment.
  126. Preliminary Program: The first public draft of an event’s schedule including information on program structure and key speakers, giving details of ancillary activities and usually containing the event registration form.
  127. Preliminary Announcement: See FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT.
  128. Premium Beer: Higher quality, higher priced beer. Has a higher alcoholic content than light beer and regular beer.
  129. Premium Brand: Higher quality, higher priced spirits (hard liquor).
  130. Premium Pay: Extra pay over the regular wage rate for work performed outside or beyond the regular working hours, for work on Saturday, Sunday or holidays, for night shift work, for hazardous, dirty or unpleasant work, and for production in excess of established standards.
  131. Pre-Opening: Period of time before a property’s soft opening.
  132. Prep Area: Space used for food production not visible to guests.
  133. Prepaid Passenger: A passenger who has transportation paid for by someone else, usually in another city.
  134. Prepaid Ticket Advice: PTA. Airline form stating that payment has been made.
  135. Preparation of Paper: Instructions regarding the required format to be used for the presentation of a speech, AV requirements, travel, accommodations, etc. See AUTHOR’S GUIDELINES/KIT.
  136. Preparatory Session: Meeting of a specific group before the official assembly in order to finalize preparations. See REHEARSAL.
  137. Preplated Items: Food placed on plates in the kitchen prior to being served.
  138. Pre-Pleated: Material permanently pleated, ready for installation.
  139. Pre-Populate: To automatically supply a data field on a form with information
  140. Preprint: Printed volume of meeting papers available prior to or at an event.
  141. Pre-Registered: Reservation which has been made in advance with the necessary paperwork.
  142. Pre-Registration List: Computer generated list of names pre-registered with a group.
  143. Pre-Registration: 1) Registering in advance to attend an event. See ADVANCE REGISTRATION. 2) At a facility, pre-assigned sleeping rooms available for occupancy.
  144. Pre-Reserved Seats: Pre-reserved seats are usually held until 30 minutes prior to departure. Because there are a number of revenue passengers that may want to stand by for flights, seats are held for passengers with boarding passes until 10 minutes before departure. Ten minutes before departure, it becomes necessary to begin processing standby passengers. This requires releasing previously held seats of those passengers who have not checked in.
  145. Pre-Sales: Items such as books, tapes, videos, etc. sold to client in advance of event versus items sold in back of room after event.
  146. Presenter/Discussant Format: A panel of three or four experts in certain subject areas are identified, with each giving a brief presentation. After each lecture the other panelists become discussants of the material just offered. At the conclusion of the presentations, the audience is given an opportunity to ask questions of the entire panel.
  147. Presenter: Person explaining a given topic in an informational session.
  148. Pre-Set Service: Placing plated foods on banquet tables prior to seating guests.
  149. President of Honor: Senior member of the Committee of Honor.
  150. President: Chief Executive Officer of an organization. If there is a Chairman of the Board, the President is usually then Chief Operating Officer.
  151. Press Attaché: Title given to the person handling all press and media activities excluding advertising. Also Called PRESS OFFICER.
  152. Press Bridge: See BRIDGE.
  153. Press Clipping/Cutting: Article cut from a newspaper or magazine.
  154. Press Conference: Event held to communicate information to media representatives.
  155. Press Kit: A collection of publicity items that includes: 1) pertinent data on the meeting, such as agenda, historical data, guest speakers, special events, etc. The property, such as photos, descriptions of public space areas, local entertainment, etc. 2) information relative to a sponsor’s products or services.
  156. Press Office: Agency that collects and distributes information to the news media.
  157. Press Officer: See PRESS ATTACHÉ.
  158. Press Release: A prepared statement released to the news media. Can be “For immediate release,” or at a specified time or date; an article intended for use by the media about a company, product, service, individual, or show. Also Called NEWS RELEASE.
  159. Press Room: A room where members of the media may obtain exhibitor press kits, conduct interviews, or relax. Larger press rooms contain typewriters, computers, phones, and fax machines for use by the press in filing their stories.
  160. Press Trips: Organized trips for travel writers and broadcasters for the purpose of assisting them in developing stories about tourism destinations. Often, journalists travel independently, though with the assistance of a state’s office of tourism of a DMO.
  161. Press/Publicity Release: A news article or feature story written by the subject of the story for delivery and potential placement in the media.
  162. Pricing: Decision making process of ascertaining what price to charge for a given tour once total costs are known. Involves determining the mark-up, studying the completion and evaluating the tour value for the price to be charged. Usually a management function.
  163. Primary Market: Foreign countries where the U.S. Travel & Tourism Administration (USTTA) maintains an office.
  164. Prime Rib: Prime Rib is often used for what is really a rib roast. The term "prime" refers to the highest USDA beef grade. It's the finest beef, with even marbling and a creamy layer of fat. Although Prime Rib is how rib roast is often labeled, it is often USDA Choice beef.
  165. Print: Copy of the final edited film.
  166. Priority Point System: System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space for the next event first. Also Called PRIORITY RATING SYSTEM.
  167. Priority Rating System: System of assigning points to exhibiting companies to determine which firms will be allowed to select booth/stand space for the next event first. Also Called PRIORITY POINT SYSTEM.
  168. Prismatic Glass: Material that is textured with a multitude of tiny facets that refract and diffuse light.
  169. Prismatic Plastic: Material that is textured with a multitude of tiny facets that refract and diffuse light.
  170. Privatization: Retaining a private company to handle a responsibility formerly handled by the city or state administration, e.g., operating a convention center.
  171. Pro Forma Invoice: 1) An invoice provided by a supplier prior to the shipment of merchandise, informing the buyer of the kinds and quantities of goods to be sent, their value, and important specifications (weight, size, etc.) 2) A packing list on which a shipper describes what is being shipped including the quantity, the value, the weight, and dimensions.
  172. Pro Forma: Financial forms (invoices, profit and loss statements, balance sheets, etc.) based on future expectations; provided or made in advance to describe items or projections.
  173. Pro Number: Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred to.
  174. Problem Orientation: Adult learner’s tendency to seek in order to solve a problem or fulfill a need.
  175. Proceedings: Published volume transcribing the full conference sessions, which may or may not include details of the discussion.
  176. Procession: Group of individuals moving in an orderly, often ceremonial manner.
  177. Producer: Person or company responsible for the production of something; usually used in reference to a theatrical producer, event producer or an exhibit producer. See ORGANIZER.
  178. Product: Products are items, which compliment the speaker’s topic and are available for sale. A speaker’s books, audio cassette albums, video tapes, workbooks, posters, and other products may be sold by contract in large quantity to a client in advance for all attendees, or sold at the back of the room at an autograph table.
  179. Production Company: A company that presents special effects and theatrical acts. This type of company may contract to put on an entire event or only parts of one. They sometimes hire speakers as part of their contract.
  180. Productivity Tickets: Complimentary tickets awarded by the official airline after the event according to the number of attendees who used the airline.
  181. Professional Association: Group of persons who practice a particular professional activity.
  182. Professional Congress Organizer: PCO. A type of company, often in Europe that is comparable to a DESTINATION MANAGEMENT COMPANY (DMC) in the U.S. Local supplier who can arrange, manage and/or plan any function or service for an event. See GROUND OPERATOR.
  183. Professional Organizations: An industry organization that fosters education and networking opportunities for its members.
  184. Professional Speaker: A speaker who is paid a fee for performances and makes a living from presenting information to various organizations.
  185. Professional: Relating to organizations whose membership hold common occupational credentials or interests.
  186. Profile of Attendees: Data concerning attendees, including their average age, spending habits, etc. A profile of event participants.
  187. Profile: Detailed information about a traveler and/or company kept on file by a travel management company.
  188. Program Book: Printed schedule of events, location of function rooms, and other pertinent information.
  189. Program Design: Structure of event program elements to achieve specific goals and objectives.
  190. Program Development: Planning that takes place before an event regarding its specific content and fabric.
  191. Program Exclusivity: When a speaker limits the speakers bureau/agency to offering certain programs that the speaker presents.
  192. Program: Schedule of events, giving details of times and places.
  193. Prohibited Cargo: Goods restricted by international convention. Also refers to drugs, weapons and ammunitions.
  194. Projection Booth: Platform or area from which audiovisual presentations are controlled.
  195. Projection Distance: Measurement from the projector to the screen.
  196. Projection Rehearsal Room: See TRY OUT ROOM.
  197. Projection Room: Area at back or above auditorium for projection.
  198. Projection Screen: Surface on which images are displayed.
  199. Projector: An apparatus for projecting a picture on a screen. Whether the device is an overhead projector, data (LCD) projector, slide projector, or a film projector, it is usually referred to as simply a projector.
  200. Promoter: Person or organization whose role is to market an event, maximizing media coverage and income.
  201. Promotion: 1) Publicizing an event. See PUBLICITY. 2) An advancement in rank or position.
  202. Promotional Fare: Fare below regular rates.
  203. Promotional Fares: Reduced fares for travel to particular cities. The number of seats sold at the reduced fare is limited and, therefore, early booking is critical. These tickets also carry many restrictions.
  204. Pro-Number: Shipment number designated by the common carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the shipment must be referred. Usually assigned at once.
  205. Proof of Citizenship: A document, necessary for obtaining a passport, that establishes ones’ nationality to the satisfaction of a foreign government.
  206. Proof: 1) Final copy for approval before printing. See BLUELINE. 2) To correct before final printing. 3) Standard measure of alcoholic strength; e.g., 100 proof = 50 percent alcohol content.
  207. Proofing: Checking preliminary printed materials for errors before the final printing.
  208. Property: 1) Establishment such as a hotel, motel, inn, resort, conference center, or event facility. 2) Something (e.g. an interest, money, or land) that is owned or possessed.
  209. Property: A hotel, motel, inn, lodge or other accommodation facility.
  210. Proposal: 1) Plan put forth for consideration or acceptance. 2) Communication sent by a supplier to a potential customer detailing the supplier’s offerings and prices.
  211. Props: Stage furniture, set dressing, and all articles used by actors or entertainers.
  212. Proscenium Arch: The visible opening that frames a stage (usually theatrical.)
  213. Proscenium: Arch that separates a stage from the auditorium.
  214. Prospect: A potential attendee, guest, buyer or exhibitor.
  215. Prospectus: The document (printed or online) that promotes the chief features and benefits of a product or service to prospects.
  216. Protection: Reservation on an alternate flight.
  217. Protocol: 1) Customs and regulations dealing with diplomatic formality, precedence, and etiquette. 2) A formal description of message formats and the rules two computers must follow to exchange messages.
  218. Provision: Detailed section of a contract.
  219. Provisional Program: Generally a second mailing including information on program structure and key speakers, giving details of the ancillary conference activities and normally containing the conference registration forms. See PRELIMINARY PROGRAM.
  220. Provisional Registration: See PENDING REGISTRATION.
  221. PSI: Pounds per Square Inch. A measurement of pressure. Pressure is force per unit area. The standard unit for pressure outside of the United States is the Pascal (which is one Newton per square meter), which is the unit of pressure or stress in the International System of Units (SI). See PASCAL.
  222. PSM/PSS: Passenger Service Manager/ Supervisor.
  223. Psychological Learning Environment: Elements of the emotional atmosphere of an event room.
  224. Public Accommodation: A private entity that owns, rents or leases a public facility.
  225. Public Address System: Audio and/or visual system to convey messages to participants during an event. See PA SYSTEM.
  226. Public Relations Officer: Title given to the person in charge of coordinating the promotional activities of an event.
  227. Public Relations: Presentation of an event via the media or other outlets, stressing the benefits and desirability of such event.
  228. Public Seminar: A seminar that is open to the public. Tickets are sold to individuals.
  229. Public Show: Exhibition that is open to the public, usually requiring an entrance fee. See EXHIBITION. See Also GATE SHOW, CONSUMER SHOW. Compare With TRADE SHOW.
  230. Public Space: Space in a facility that is available for use by anyone willing to pay the rental fee.
  231. Public Speaker: Someone who speaks in public. Often, a public speaker is not paid for his or her appearances and delivers a political speech or a speech that promotes a particular cause, company, or organization.
  232. Publications: Printed items, such as books, magazines, newspapers and conference documentation.
  233. Publicity Materials: Brochures or other items needed for promotional purposes.
  234. Publicity: A media campaign, normally consisting of a series of public notices and advertising activities, aimed at ensuring maximum attendance by focusing attention on an event. See PROMOTION.
  235. Purchasing Agent: An agent who purchases goods on behalf of a company or agency.
  236. Pylon: A tall exhibit structure normally used for identification.
  237. Pyrotechnics: Fireworks display.
  238. Q&A: Question-and-answer period after a speaker or presentation at a meeting.
  239. Quad Box: Four electrical outlets in one box, which should be grounded.
  240. Quad Room: Room with at least two beds occupied by four persons. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
  241. Quad/Quadruple: 1) Four-channel audio tape recording system. 2) Room with two or more beds for four persons.
  242. Qualifying: The act of determining a person's authority or financial ability to purchase a product or service or perform a specific function.
  243. Qualitative Data: Descriptive information that is a record of what is observed, presented in narrative by the respondent. Also referred to as “soft data.”
  244. Quality Profits: Profits that can be sustained year to year over a prolonged period of time.
  245. Quantitative Data: Information that is represented numerically so you can assign ranks or scores, or determine averages and frequencies. Also Called HARD DATA.
  246. Quart: Unit of measure equal to l/4 gallon or 32 ounces. (Approx. liter size).
  247. Quarter-Round: Wedge shaped table with one rounded edge.
  248. Quartz Lamp: Type of high intensity projection lamp.
  249. Queen-Size Bed: Large bed usually measuring 60-by-80 inches (150-by-200 centimeters).
  250. Quesadilla: Filled tortilla.
  251. Questionnaire: Survey; a set of questions used to gather information.
  252. Quiche: Savory custard pie.
  253. Quick Set: Function room set-up that saves room turnover time, limits the number of event rooms required, and avoids additional charges for changing room set-ups.
  254. Quick-Change Booth: Enclosed or draped area, close to the stage, for costume changes.
  255. Quota: 1) The quantity of goods of a specific kind that a country will permit to be imported without restriction or imposition of additional duties. 2) A part of a budget which a salesperson must book.
  256. Quotation/Quote: An offer to sell goods or services at a stated price and under specified conditions.
  257. R&B: Rhythm-and-Blues style of music.
  258. Rabbet: A saw cut used in the fabrication of wood parts.
  259. Raceway: An enclosed channel of metal or non-metallic materials designed expressly for holding wires or cables.
  260. Rack Rate: Facility’s standard, pre-established guest room rates.
  261. Rack Rate: The rate accommodations quote to the public. Group rates, convention, trade show, meeting and incentive travel rates are negotiated by the hotel and program organizers.
  262. Radio System: System for message transmission by radio.
  263. Radius Mark: Internal and external marks left on acrylic after improper or inadequate bending.
  264. Ragoût: Stew with rich gravy.
  265. Rail: Low drape divider between exhibit booths/stands.
  266. Rain Date: An alternate event date contracted to use in case of rain.
  267. Raised Letters: Lettering cut out of any material and applied or mounted to a surface or background for dimensional effects.
  268. Rally: Gathering to promote enthusiasm and excitement.
  269. RAM: Random Access Memory. The most common type of computer memory, in which the computer stores system software, programs, and data currently being used.
  270. Ramekin: Glazed earthenware dish used for both baking and serving.
  271. Ramp Session: Session added on to the end of the day’s program, usually after dinner, to accommodate extra papers or an extra papers of an extra plenary lecture.
  272. Random Access: Ability to retrieve, in any sequence, visual and taped elements regardless of original placement order.
  273. Random Noise: Noise consisting of random-frequencies with random time and amplitude characteristics. See NOISE.
  274. Random Sample: A sample in which the probability of selection for each element in the population is known prior to the sample selection.
  275. Rank and File: The membership of a union or organization, other than officers and officials.
  276. Rap Sessions: Informal sessions with no specific agenda.
  277. Rapporteur: Person appointed to note and record the proceedings of sessions and to write summaries of the paper presented for a final summation session. See REPORTER.
  278. Rate of Exchange: The rate of currency exchange established daily as the buying rate of foreign currency by the Federal Reserve Bank. The daily rate is used only when it varies by more than 5 per cent from the quarterly rate. When applicable, the daily rate is the rate certified on the day of exportation.
  279. Ravioli: Italian pasta 'pillows' stuffed with meat, cheese and/or vegetables. Served with a sauce, usually tomato based.
  280. Raw Film: Condition of motion picture film after printing process but before surface has been treated.
  281. RCMA: Religious Conference Management Association. A member of the Convention Industry Council.
  282. Reach: The percentage of people within a specific target audience reached by an advertising campaign.
  283. Reactance: Electrical characteristic of inductors and of capacitors, opposing the flow of A.C. electricity. Reactance is measured in ohms and may be negative producing what is called an “imaginary” part of an impedance. Loudspeakers, for example, can be highly reactive and, under certain circumstances with certain signals, can feed 50 amperes or more back into the power amplifier driving them.
  284. Reader Board: At a facility, a listing, either printed or on a video screen, of the day’s events including times and locations. See DIRECTORY. See Also FUNCTION BOARD.
  285. Ready Room: Area set aside for speakers to meet, relax, test AV, or prepare prior to or between speeches. See TRY OUT ROOM.
  286. Readymen: Nonunion, temporary labor hired from a personnel agency.
  287. Real Time Analyzer: Device used in acoustic studies to analyze sound energies in a room as they occur and print them out for later study.
  288. Real Time Captioning: Words displayed on a terminal while the speech is occurring.
  289. Real-Time: When online activities take place at a designated time, they are referred to as real-time events. A Webcast of a keynote presenter that can be watched live over the Internet is an example of a real-time event.
  290. Rear Illuminated: Technique of lighting color transparency or adlux from rear.
  291. Rear Projection: Movie, slide, or computer image presentation where the screen is between the viewer and the projector. Often used in terms of a FRONT PROJECTION SCREEN which is translucent to images being projected from the rear and can be viewed from the front.
  292. Rear-Lit: Method of lighting transparency from behind.
  293. Reasonable Accommodation: Any provision that aids the participation of a person with a disability, as long as it does not create a hazard to others, a major disruption in business or an undue financial or administrative burden.
  294. Rebate: A return of part of a payment.
  295. Recall: Requiring employee to return to work after he or she has left for the day (or night).
  296. Receipt: Official acknowledgement of receipt of registration and fees.
  297. Receiver: Apparatus that converts electric currents or waves into visible or audible signals.
  298. Receiving Fee: Arbitrary fees sometimes imposed by a host government to officially recognize an event.
  299. Receiving Line: Dignitaries, host, sponsor, and guest of honor lined up to greet guests.
  300. Reception Agency: An agency that specializes in services for incoming visitors. See INBOUND TOUR OPERATOR. See Also RECEPTIVE OPERATOR.
  301. Reception Desk/Registration Desk: Process by which an individual indicates and confirms his intent to attend an event. Registration for an event can occur in advance of the event beginning or on-site when the event has begun.
  302. Reception: Stand-up social function where beverages and light foods are served. Foods may be presented on small buffet tables or passed by servers. May precede a meal function.
  303. Receptive Operator: A tour operator or travel agent who specializes in services for incoming visitors. Same as INBOUND TOUR OPERATOR. See INBOUND TOUR.
  304. Receptive Operator: Specialists in handling arrangements for incoming visitors at a destination including airport transfers, local sightseeing, restaurants, accommodations, etc. Receptive operators can be a travel agent or tour operator.
  305. Recession: 1) Withdrawing procession. 2) Economic downturn.
  306. Rechauffé: Reheated; warmed over.
  307. Recommendation: Strongly suggested course of action; sometimes has binding force.
  308. Record Locator: An identifying number for the PNR in a file or record. See also PNR.
  309. Red Eye Flight: A scheduled flight that departs late at night and arrives in the morning.
  310. Reduction: The base from which the flavor of a sauce is derived. The volume of liquid in the saucepan diminishes as the liquid evaporates, thereby concentrating the flavor.
  311. Referral Child Care: When an event host organization publishes a list of child care service providers available. Attendees then make their own arrangements with these services.
  312. Referral: When someone, particularly a satisfied client, suggests or recommends services to other buyers.
  313. Reflection: Sound or light energy which returns from a surface when struck. The amount and angle of reflection depends on the type and size of the reflecting surface and the frequency (wavelength) of the energy.
  314. Refraction: The change of direction of a light ray passing from one medium to another of different density.
  315. Refresh: To clean function space after specific functions, or during break periods. Usually involves refilling water pitchers, removing soiled articles, changing glassware, and performing other light housekeeping chores.
  316. Refreshment Break: Time between meeting sessions. May include coffee, soft drinks, and/or food items. Some are planned around a theme.
  317. Refreshments: Items of food and drink consumed between main meals; usually taken during breaks between meetings. See BREAK. See Also COFFEE BREAK.
  318. Refund Policies: Rules and regulations which determine allowable reasons and timelines under which fees for a meeting or event will be refunded in whole or in part.
  319. Refund: Money repaid; can be in the form of cash or credit voucher.
  320. Refundable Deposit: A deposit made by the destination management company (DMC) to a venue that may be returned to the DMC under certain conditions agreed to by the venue.
  321. Refurbish: To update, repair damage, renew surfaces and replace graphics as necessary to recondition an exhibit or a facility, to extend its life-span.
  322. Reg Area: Registration area.
  323. Reg Desk: Registration desk.
  324. Regional Event: An event targeted to attendees from a specific geographical area. May be a stand-alone event, or a regional version of a national event. Typically 60% of attendees reside within a 400 mile (640 km) radius of the event city. See Also NATIONAL EVENT, STATE/PROVINCE EVENT, & LOCAL EVENT.
  325. Regional Exclusivity: A speakers bureau's/agency's exclusivity is limited to a particular region or territory.
  326. Regional Security Officer: RSO. Consular official charged with the security of his country’s nationals while traveling in his region.
  327. Registrant: Individual who has submitted a registration form and attends an event.
  328. Registrar: Individual responsible for handling registrations.
  329. Registration Area: Designated area where event registration takes place.
  330. Registration Card: Signature form used by facility when registering a guest.
  331. Registration Data: Information about an attendee that is gathered as part of the registration process (occupation, fee category, etc).
  332. Registration Fee: Amount payable for attendance at a conference; may vary according to level of participation or type of membership.
  333. Registration Form: Form used by an event attendee to sign up to attend an event. It is used to collect important information about the attendee and his intended participation in the event.
  334. Registration Kit: Packet of materials for an event, such as a program or agenda, special tickets, maps, etc.
  335. Registration Packet: See REGISTRATION KIT.
  336. Registration: 1) Process by which an individual indicates his intent to attend a conference or stay at a property. 2) A method of booking and payment. 3) The process of recording data about an attendee (or exhibitor), sending a confirmation and creating a badge used on-site.
  337. Rehearsal: Practicing a presentation.
  338. Reimbursement Policy: Statement of procedures that speakers and personnel must follow in order to have their expenses reimbursed.
  339. Reinforced Vinyl: Covered cord, wall coverings, or upholstery materials. Vinyl laminated with fabric. Generally used for banners.
  340. Reissue/Exchange: To write a new ticket to accommodate changes.
  341. Relay Interpreting: Oral translation whereby an interpreter does not translate directly, but interprets the translation of a colleague, usually because he is not qualified to work directly from the original language.
  342. Relay: Electrical device used to interrupt or sustain flow of current. Commonly used in low-voltage systems for programmed effects.
  343. Release Date: Date beyond which a facility is free to rent the unused sleeping rooms or function space to other groups.
  344. Release: 1) Signed form giving permission to use a person’s name, picture, or statement (often in an advertisement). 2) Form signed by presenter allowing recording of presentation. 3) To release space, as in returning unsold air reservations, cruise cabins, or hotel rooms to the supplier that originally allotted them. 4) Document provided by management to permit removal of goods from exhibition during event hours.
  345. Released Value: Limit of carrier’s liability.
  346. Released Value: Stated value of a shipment when released to the carrier. If shipper declares a higher value than the per-pound limit, shipping costs will increase.
  347. Religious Meetings: An event for attendees to discuss non-secular subjects.
  348. Remote Ballast: Removal of ballast from fluorescent fixtures to a separate or remote location, to allow for extremely limited space.
  349. Remote Control: Control of apparatus, such as audiovisual equipment, from a distance.
  350. Rental Booth/Stand: Complete booth/stand package offered to exhibitors on a rental basis.
  351. Rental Charges: Cost of hiring a piece of equipment or function space for a specified period of time.
  352. Rental Contract: Contract stating terms and conditions for rental of exhibition venue or for individual booth/stand within a venue.
  353. Repeat Business: Business that continues to return, thereby generating increased profits.
  354. Repeat Engagement/Booking: When a speaker does a second or subsequent booking for the same client.
  355. Reporter: Person appointed to note and record the proceedings of sessions and to write summaries of the paper presented for a final summation session.
  356. Reporting Pay: Guaranteed payment to employees who report or show up ready for work at their usual time and find no work to do. See CALL PAY.
  357. Reprise: Repetition of musical theme.
  358. Request for Proposals: RFP. A document that stipulates what services the organization wants from an outside contractor and requests a bid to perform such services. Same As BID MANUAL/SPECIFICATIONS.
  359. Request Status: May apply to seats, meals and reservations when they have been requested but not confirmed.
  360. Reroute: To change a passenger’s itinerary after they have begun their travel.
  361. Reservation Center: Telephone reservation sales office.
  362. Reservation Form: See HOUSING FORM.
  363. Reservation Method: Manner by which sleeping room reservations are to be made for attendees of a specific event (i.e., individually, via master list, etc.).
  364. Reservation Request: A communication by which a guest indicates sleeping room requirements; these are forwarded to the hotel to secure a reservation.
  365. Reservation Review Date: Designated day when the facility will release a block of sleeping rooms to the general public. See CUT-OFF DATE.
  366. Reservation: An arrangement to have a sleeping room (at a hotel or other housing facility) held for one's use. Process by which an individual or group secures space at a facility.
  367. Resistance: Extent to which an electrical conductor impedes a flow of current.
  368. Resistor: Electrical component made to resist current flow.
  369. Resolution: 1) Ability of a projection system to distinguish and reproduce fine detail. 2) Motion put forward for a joint decision; usually has the force of a legislative decision.
  370. Resonance: Natural vibration or oscillation of mechanical or electrical systems at specific frequencies that depend on qualities such as mass and springiness (mechanical systems) or capacitance and inductance (electrical systems) in response to an outside source.
  371. Resort Casual: Attire for warm destinations, including mid- to knee-length shorts; collarless or golf shirts; khakis and sandals. Women can wear linen sheaths, casual skirts or sundresses.
  372. Resort Conference Center: A conference facility with at least one major amenity.
  373. Resort: Regions associated with recreation and leisure, such as the mountains, seashore, or natural or man-made attractions. A resort hotel or motel offers or is located near facilities for sports and recreational activities such as tennis, swimming, sailing, etc.
  374. Resource Manual: Packet of handouts from all sessions that will occur during the event.
  375. Resource Workbook: Usually a loose-leaf binder in which additions and deletions are made as the program develops.
  376. Restricted Dialing: The ability to control telephone access often by excluding specific country or area codes and certain types of calls. This is often put in place for event rooms and show floor locations. Directions on whether or not restricted dialing should be established from a specific location during an event should be indicated on Function Orders associated with that location and be included in the event’s specifications guide. See LONG DISTANCE DIALING.
  377. Retail Agent: A travel agent.
  378. Retailer: Middlemen such as travel agents who sell directly to the consumer.
  379. Retailer: Another term for travel agents who sell travel products directly to consumers.
  380. Retained Earnings: Profits retained by the enterprise rather than disbursing to the shareholders. Retained earnings are used to improve the value of the enterprise through development and/or promotional programs.
  381. Retention Rate: 1) The percentage of exhibitors or attendees that return to an event from one year to the next. 2) The percentage of an organization's membership or company's employees that remain with the organization or company from one year to another.
  382. Return on Investment: ROI. Net Profit divided by Net Worth. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability.
  383. Return: Panel joined to back wall at right angles.
  384. Reunion Tour: See ALUMNI TOUR.
  385. Revalidation: The authorized stamping or writing upon a flight coupon to show it has been officially altered by the carrier. Tickets can only be revalidated for those flights that reflect the same fare, city pair and advanced purchase requirement.
  386. Revenue Management System: A sophisticated computer based pricing system that vendors use to adjust prices based on anticipated demand. Also referred to as Yield Management.
  387. Reverberation: Sound which appears to echo and re-echo in weaker and weaker levels. Also Called REVERB.
  388. Reverse: Reversed or negative form of original art or type.
  389. Reviewing Stands: Elevated platforms accommodating not more than 50 persons. Seating facilities, if provided, are normally in the nature of loose chairs. Reviewing stands accommodating more than 50 persons shall be regulated as grandstands.
  390. Revision List: Summarized list of changes and updates to be made to a function sheet.
  391. RevPAR: Revenue Per Available Room. A performance measurement commonly used in the hotel industry. It is calculated by dividing a hotel's net room’s revenue by the total number of available rooms, or by multiplying a hotel's average daily room rate (ADR) by its occupancy.
  392. RFP Distribution Date: The date a Request for Proposals (RFP) is to be passed along if an event organizer is using an intermediary to distribute the RFP [i.e., If an event organizer sends an RFP to a Convention & Visitors Bureau (CVB), and wants the CVB to send the RFP to member hotels on a certain date, that date is the RFP Distribution Date.]. See Also RFP PUBLISHED DATE.
  393. RFP Published Date: The date a Request for Proposals (RFP) is released from an event organizer and is made public. See also RFP DISTRIBUTION DATE.
  395. Rib: A framing member usually termed in circular forms.
  396. Rider: An additional clause in artist’s contract stipulating special requirements such as travel, dressing rooms, technical equipment, etc.
  397. Rigger: 1) Person responsible for machinery uncrating, unskidding, positioning, leveling, and reskidding. 2) Skilled labor responsible for attaching signs, banners, truss, and other equipment to ceilings.
  398. Rigging: 1) The process of attaching the cable on a crane to a piece of machinery or equipment. 2) The process for hanging materials or signs.
  399. Right of First Refusal: A courtesy a facility extends to a previously booked party to approve or disapprove a concurrent booking or to save uncontracted space for the previously booked party for program growth.
  400. Right to Work State: Where joining a union is not a condition of employment.
  401. Rights Only: Selling only the rights to a sponsorship, with the buyer incurring expenses for production, installation and dismantle.
  402. Rim Drive: A turntable operated from its edge rather than the center for heavier or off-center loads.
  403. Riser: Raised platform. See DAIS. See Also PODIUM, CYCLORAMA.
  404. Risk Management: Recognizing the possibility of injury, damage or loss, and having a means to prevent it or provide insurance.
  405. Risk Monies: Funds that an agency would not recoup should a tour not materialize, i.e., nonrefundable deposits to suppliers, promotional expenditures, printing expenses.
  406. RMS: Value for watts in complex signals, such as music, derived by dividing voltage by the load impedance to describe the amount of energy.
  407. ROH: Run-of-the-House.
  408. ROI: Return on Investment. Net Profit divided by Net Worth. A financial ratio indicating the degree of profitability.
  409. Roll-a-Way: Portable bed that can be provided for extra persons.
  410. Roll-In: Foods and/or beverages preset on rolling tables and then moved into function room at designated time.
  411. Rolling Cart: Portable cart on which audiovisual equipment can be placed.
  412. Romaine: Lettuce with dark green leaves and a nutty flavor, used for Caesar Salad.
  413. Roman Candles: A long paper tube packed with round stars and black powder; when lit stars shoot out every four seconds to a height of about 75 feet.
  414. ROO: Return on Objectives. Measurement of benefit an exhibiting company receives for participation at an exhibition by company pre-set objectives to show success.
  415. Room Block: Total number of sleeping rooms that are utilized and attributable to one event.
  416. Room Blocks: Several rooms held for a group.
  417. Room Capacity: Number of people that can function safely and comfortably in a room.
  418. Room Commitment: Rooms to be held open each night of the event, specified by room type (single, double, etc).
  419. Room Deposit: Money that must be paid in advance in order for a hotel to guarantee to hold a room.
  420. Room Nights: Number of rooms blocked or occupied multiplied by number of nights each room is reserved or occupied.
  421. Room Occupancy Pattern: Number of single and double rooms used.
  422. Room Only: A type of rate that consists of the price of the room only. Commonly abbreviated as EP.
  423. Room Pick Up: The number of sleeping rooms actually used by event attendees and exhibitors.
  424. Room Rate: The amount charged for the occupancy of a room.
  425. Room Service: Facility department which provides food and beverage service to guest rooms.
  426. Room Set-Up: The physical arrangement of a room including the layout of tables, chairs, other furniture, and equipment.
  428. Room Turnover: Amount of time needed to tear down and reset a function room.
  429. Room: 1) A chamber used for sleeping. 2) A place where an assembly meets.
  430. Room: Double: No guarantee of two beds; Double Double: Two double beds (or two queens or kings); Twin: Two twin beds (or two doubles or queens)
  431. Room-Based Videoconferencing: Land-based system for videoconferencing designed to manage communication between one group of people, usually in a conference room setting, with another group or groups in similar settings elsewhere.
  432. Root Mean Squared: See RMS.
  433. Rope and Pulley Screen: Large format screen which is rolled around a tubular core around which ropes are wound in such a way as to roll and unroll the screen by operating the ropes.
  434. Rope Lights: A string of small, low-voltage lights inside a clear or colored transparent plastic tube run by a controller. See TUBE LIGHTS.
  435. Roping: Plush-covered chain used to define traffic areas. Can be attached to a stanchion.
  436. Rostrum: Raised platform where a speaker stands when delivering his or her remarks. Same as PODIUM. See Also LECTERN.
  437. Rôti: (row tee) Roast.
  438. Rôtisserie: Roasted on a spit.
  439. Rough Layout: Quick drawing giving indications of proposed exhibit.
  440. Roulade: Rolled, as in meat.
  441. Round Robin: Contest or tournament in which each participant is matched with every other participant.
  442. Round Slide Tray: See CAROUSEL TRAY.
  443. Round Trip: Travel from origin to destination and return to origin via the same cities.
  444. Round: Banquet table, usually 60 inches (152 centimeters) in diameter. Also available in 66- and 72-inch (168- and 183 centimeter) diameters. A “Round for 8” is a banquet table at which 8 place settings should be set. Another common configuration is a “Round for 10.” Commonly, a 60-inch (152 cm) round is used to seat 8, a 66-inch (168 cm) round seats 9, and a 72-inch (183 cm) round seats 10.
  445. Rounded Hollow Square: A hollow square whose corners are replaced by serpentine or half-moon tables.
  446. Roundtable: A group of experts who meet on an equal basis to review and discuss specialized, professional matters, either in closed session or, more frequently, before an audience.
  447. Route Manager: The person responsible for managing motor coach flow, routes, drivers, etc.
  448. Roux: Mixture of butter and flour used to thicken sauces and soups.
  449. Row Booth/Stand: The booth/stand within a row of similar booths/stands with the front opening onto an aisle and with other booths/stands on either side.
  450. RP Screen: See REAR PROJECTION.
  452. RTI: Room, Tax and Incidentals. An abbreviation often used in reference to charges at an hotel, motel, inn, bed and breakfast, etc.
  453. Rules and Regulations: The requirements and procedures prepared by event management for attendees, contractors and exhibitors for a given event. See EXHIBITOR MANUAL.
  454. Rump Session: The session added on the end of the day to accommodate an extra plenary lecture, usually after dinner.
  455. Run: The number of copies printed.
  456. Runner: 1) Long narrow carpet in a hallway, aisle, or on stage. 2) Piece of portable or constructed staging that extends a main stage to form a runway. 3) Main cord extending from a microphone to an amplifier.
  457. Running Order: Subjects to be discussed at a meeting. See AGENDA.
  458. Run-of-the-House: 1) Rooms given at random according to availability when the reservations are made. 2) Flat rate for which a hotel or motel agrees to offer any of its available rooms (with the exception of suites) to a group. Final assignment of rooms is at the discretion of the hotel. See FLAT RATE.
  459. Run-Through: A complete rehearsal including all elements of the event production, such as presentations, performances, music or entertainment, lighting, audio-visual and technical aspects.
  460. Runway: Platform which extends from a stage into the audience area, often used for events such as fashion shows. See CATWALK.
  461. Russian Service: 1) Banquet Russian: The food is fully prepared in the kitchen. All courses are served either from platters or an escoffier dish. Tureens are used for soup and special bowls for salad. The server places the proper plate in front of the guest. After the plates are placed, the server returns with a tray of food and, moving counter-clockwise around the table, serves the food from the guest’s left with the right hand. With this style of service, the server controls the amount served to each guest. See BUTLER SERVICE. 2) Restaurant Russian: Foods are cooked at tableside. Servers put them on platters and present platters to guests seated at dining tables. Guests serve themselves.
  462. Sabre: One of the four major Computerized Reservation Systems (CRS) or Global Distribution Systems (GDS).
  463. Saddle Screen: Projection screen whose surface is pulled up out of a container and supported by a metal rod from the back.
  464. Saddle-Stitch Binding: Binding process using wire staples.
  465. Safe Lock Stand: Stand with four adjustable telescoping legs designed to hold audio visual equipment.
  466. Safety Shot: A shot taken by a camera at a multi-camera set-up when that camera is not in use, but powered up. Any camera not in use should be left on a safety shot until it is powered down. Safety shots make for good back-ups.
  467. SAG: Screen Actors Guild. A union for actors working in filmed entertainment. The professional union representing actors and actresses.
  468. Salami: A type of dry cured sausage.