Summary of Discussions: A summation of discussions that have taken place.
Summary Record/Report: A short review of a speech, debate or discussion.
Summary: A Synopsis. Written short version of speech or paper.
Super-APEX Fare: APEX fare at a lower rate with more restrictions. See APEX FARE.
Superimposition: Technique of projecting two visual images on a screen at the same time.
Supernumerary: Super. An extra or walk-on in a production with no individual lines of his/her own to speak.
Supersaver Fares: Marketing term used by some carriers to describe some categories of discount fares, usually applied to fares requiring seven (7), fourteen (14), twenty one (21) day advance purchase and stay over a Saturday night. The reservation is subject to cancellation if the ticket is not purchased before the time set by the carrier. If your reservation is booked by an agency, the airline considers it ticketed and sets no time limit.
Supersonic: Faster than the speed of sound (approximately 344 meters or 1130 feet per second at sea level).
Supper: Light late evening meal.
Supplemental Airline: Non-scheduled airline.
Supplemental Liability Coverage: In a car rental agreement, additional coverage for injury and damage claims by third parties beyond the amount provided automatically under the contract terms.
Supplier: Those businesses that provide industry products like accommodations, transportation, car rentals, restaurants and attractions.
Support Staff: Part- or full-time personnel who provide services for tasks associated with programs, events, or conventions.
Supreme: 1) Sauce cooked with a browned roux, thinned with chicken stock, and seasoned with lemon juice and parsley. 2) Silver bowl holder that is filled with ice to surround chilled items, such as vischysoisse.
Surcharge: Charge over and above established rates, such as an energy surcharge.
Surf and Turf: A main course that includes both seafood and meat, such as a lobster tail and a beef filet. See SPLIT ENTRÉE. See Also DUALING MENUS.
Surface Transportation Board: STB. Formerly the Interstate Commerce Commission, an oversight board that is part of the DOT. Responsible for overseeing the transportation of goods between states. All for-hire truckers and railroads are required to receive proper authority from the STB before offering themselves to the public for hire. Certain carriers are exempt from the STB's jurisdiction, but no carriers are exempt from safety regulations.
Surname: Name by which all immediate family members are known. Women usually (but not always) adopt their husband’s surname upon marriage. Same as LAST NAME, FAMILY NAME (preferred). Compare With GIVEN NAME.
Survey: Solicitation of opinions regarding services; questionnaire.
Sushi: A Japanese food made with sweetened rice. Fish (raw or cooked) and/or vegetables are placed on the rice or wrapped with the rice and a sheet of seaweed.
Suspended Elements: An attachment of devices to the frame work of an exhibition hall.
Suspension: Definite ending of an event for a specific and unplanned reason.
Sweep: A method used for setting up and cutting circles or arches.
Switch: Electrical on/off switch used directly in wiring to control, by make or break, the flow of current.
Switchboard: A combination of switches, dimmer plates and fuses for controlling light. See DIMMER BOARD.
Switcher: 1) Engineer (technical director) who is switching from camera to camera. 2) Panel with rows of buttons that allows switching from one camera or sound source to another.
Symposium: A meeting of a number of experts in a particular field, at which papers are presented and discussed by specialists on particular subjects with a view to making recommendations concerning the problems under discussion.
Synchronization: (Sync) Sound and picture recorded or played back at the same time.
System: A stock set of components that can be put together to make an exhibit.
T&M: Time and Materials.
T&T: Tax & Tip. Addition of taxes and gratuities to a price when not included, designated by + +.
T/D/B/A: Trading and Doing Business As.
T-1 Line: Transmitting data at speeds of up to 1.544 Mbps, operates at a much higher capacity than an ISDN line and can be split to accommodate several users at one time (known as a fractional T-1).
T-3 Line: Transmitting data at speeds of up to 44.184 Mbps, is faster than a T-1 line, allowing performance of more tasks simultaneously at a greater speed. See T-1 LINE.
Tabbouleh: A Middle Eastern relish.
Table d' Hôte: Full course, fixed price meal (prix fixe).
Table Tent: A small sign used to identify the speaker or speakers. See NAME CARD. See Also PLACE CARD.
Table Wine: Class of wine naturally fermented to about 12 percent alcohol. Typically used as a house wine.
Tablescape: The aesthetic layout of the banquet table, including the centerpiece, color of linen, napkin folds, china and flatware, etc.
Tablet Chairs: Chairs with attached writing surfaces. See WRITING CHAIRS.
Table-Top Display/Exhibit: Small portable display that can be set up on top of a table.
Tabs: The main front curtain of a stage.
Tactical Steps: Short-range actions to implement a long-range strategy.
Taffeta: Type of material used for skirting or special draping.
Tailoring: When a speaker adjusts his or her material to the particular needs of an audience.
Talent: 1) Performer, entertainer. 2) Outside personnel stationed in an exhibit booth/stand to demonstrate a product, provide attraction to booth or greet visitors. Includes magicians and similar attractions. See MODEL. See Also PRESENTER.
Talk Show Set-Up: Seating arrangement, often used for panel discussions, in which a desk (for the moderator/facilitator) is set perpendicular to arm chairs for the panelists.
Talkback: Speaker system that connects the control room with the studio.
Tallow Carving: Display piece carved from lamb's fat and wax. Usually all white, but can be tinted.
Tally Light: Small red light on the camera, indicating when the camera is on.
Tally Sheet: See ACCOUNT SHEET.
Tap: Device used for starting or stopping the flow of beverage from a container, such as a keg.
Tape Blip: An audible impulse that activates an electric mechanism.
Tape Player: Machine designed only for playback of recorded magnetic tapes.
Tape Recorder: A device for recording sound on magnetic tape.
Tapered Edge: Any material that is reduced in thickness at its outer edge.
Tare Weight: The weight of a container and/or packing materials deducted from the total weight to determine the weight of the contents or load. See GROSS WEIGHT.
Target Audience/Market: A specific demographic, sociographic target at which marketing communications are directed.
Target Date: A date set by event management and/or general service contractor for the arrival of freight at a trade event. Usually shipments received before or after this date are assessed a penalty charge.
Target Language: Language into which a speech or document is translated.
Target Rating Points: TRPÕs are a statistical measurement which allows one to evaluate the relative impact of differing advertising campaigns.
Tariff: 1) A schedule of duties imposed by a government on imported and exported goods. 2) Published list of fares or rates and conditions of service from a supplier.
Tariff: Rate of fare quoted and published by a travel industry supplier (i.e. hotels, tour operators, etc.) Usually an annual tariff is produced in booklet form for use in sales calls at trade shows.
Tax Exempt Certificate: Document needed from customer to verify tax exemption status in the state the event is held.
Tax Exempt: Exempted from taxation; providing interest or income that is exempted from taxation.
Tchotchke: A Yiddish slang term for the little giveaways at tradeshow booths/stands or for in-room amenities, gift bags, etc. Also spelled Tsatske (pronounced chaat-ski).
Teach-In: A session specially instituted for the application of such modifications and additions as are necessary to keep a particular subject up-to-date.
Team of Interpreters: A group of people responsible for interpreting simultaneously by utilizing equipment.
Tear Down: Dismantle.
Teaser: Promotional piece designed to build interest in an event.
Tech Check: Review of all technical aspects of the production.
Technical Director: Person who calls cues from the control room.
Technical Meeting: See SCIENTIFIC MEETING.
Technical Rehearsal: Run-through of technical aspects of an event such as lighting, sound, special effects, etc.
Technical Visit: Tour by conference delegates to a workplace related to their particular interests.
Technical Writer: Someone hired by a speaker to prepare scripts, workbooks, audios, videos, or articles on contract.
Technician: Expert in particular craft or technique usually in relation to audiovisual, mechanical or electrical equipment or appliances.
Technological Factors: Factors related to equipment used in the learning environment that affects the way a person learns.
Teen Hospitality: A room or area set aside as part of an event childcare/youth program offering activities for young adults accompanying a parent to an event.
Telco Patch: Device which allows the patching of program signal into or receives program material from telephone lines.
Telecine: A device used originally to send out motion pictures over the TV channel. Now it is used to convert original film to video prints.
Telecommunications: Electronic communication that involves the transmission of encoded sound, pictures, or data over significant distances, using radio signals or electrical or optical lines. The most common method of telecommunication is via telephone or the Internet.
Teleconference: Type of meeting which brings together three or more people in two or more locations through telecommunications. See CONFERENCE CALL.
Telemarketing: Solicitation by telephone.
TelePrompTer®: Electronic device which allows display of script for speaker to read during presentation.
Telescopic Pipe: Drape support where one section slides inside another for use at various lengths.
Tempered Pressed Wood: A hardwood product generally used in backwall paneling.
Template: Pattern or guide for various repetitive shop functions. See CUTTING SHEET.
Temporary Import Bond: The surety covering articles imported into a country on a temporary basis. This is generally done in lieu of paying import duties and/or taxes. The fee for the bond is non - refundable in most cases.
Temporary Import: Exhibition material whose temporary import status exempts payment of duties and taxes on arrival.
Temps: Temporary workers used for registration and other duties.
Tension Structure: A tent designed to have all perimeter loading equally distributed over a series of catenaty arches which provides greater stability.
Tent Board: Two boards held together with hinges that form a tent-like structure for signs. See SANDWICH BOARD.
Tent Specialist: Rental specialist who rents and installs tents for events.
Tent: Portable canvas shelter. Usually used to house outdoor functions.
Tentative Agenda: The proposed agenda as circulated prior to its approval at the meeting.
Tentative Hold: A space temporarily held by a facility or venue for a specific date pending a definite booking. There are no consequences for cancellation. See OPTION.
Tentative: Status assigned to an event after a bid has been submitted to the event organizer and the destination or facility is waiting for a final decision.
Terminal Server: A computer that has places to plug in many modems on one side and connection to a LAN or host machine on the other side. The terminal server answers calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate host computer.
Terminal: A building or area needed by transportation operators and passengers at either end of a travel or shipping route by air, rail, road, or sea.
Terrine: Similar to a pate. It is baked in an earthenware dish from which it is served.
Territory: A defined geographical region or area of prospects and clients.
Testimonial: A letter of recommendation from a former buyer or organization that is familiar with a speaker’s work.
Theater Semicircular Set-Up: Seating arrangement in which seats are in semicircular rows facing the stage area, no tables.
Theater Set-Up: Seating arrangement in which seats are in rows facing the stage area, no tables. See AUDITORIUM SET-UP.
Theater: Facility with fixed seats usually on a sloped floor with site lines focused on a permanent state. Typically a Stage Box is located behind the Proscenium which contains the performance area and the Fly Loft.
Theatrical Case: A telescoping fiber case with canvas straps.
Theme Break: A break during formal program sessions with special food and beverages pertaining to a theme and often including decorations, costumes, and entertainment.
Theme Party: Event at which all foods, beverages, decorations, and entertainment relate to a single theme.
Think Tank: A group of specialists organized by a business enterprise, governmental body and commissions to undertake intensive study and research into specified problems.
Third Party: A person other than the principals.
Three Dimensional: 3-D. A flat image having the effect of three dimensions.
Three Sheet: Bed made with a third sheet on top of the blanket. Also Called TRIPLE SHEET.
Three Wire: Term describing electrical cable with one continuous ground wire in addition to positive and negative wires.
Through Bill of Lading: A single bill of lading (B/L) covering both the domestic and international carriage of an export shipment, a air waybill, for instance, is essentially a through bill of lading used for air shipments. Ocean shipments, on the other hand, usually require two separate documents - an inland bill of lading for domestic carriage and an ocean bill of lading for international carriage. Through bills of lading, therefore, cannot be used. See AIR WAYBILL. See Also BILL OF LADING, INLAND BILL OF LADING, OCEAN BILL OF LADING.
Throw: Projection distance.
TIA: Travel Industry Association of America.
TIAA: Travel Industry Association of America.
Ticket Exchange: Banquet-control procedure whereby guests exchange an event coupon from their registration packet for an actual event ticket and seat assignment. Increases control. Also tends to reduce the number of no shows to provide more accurate guarantees.
Ticket Revalidation: System of amending an airline ticket to reflect new flights booked.
Ticketing Agreement: A contract between airlines to accept each other’s tickets for transportation.
Tidy Up: To refresh and clean a room after guest’s departure when full service had been given earlier.
Tie-Off: A method of securing shipment by use of nylon belts and block latches.
Tiered: One or more rows arranged above each other.
TIFF: Tagged-Image File Format. A graphic file format. TIFF files are also bitmaps that can be any size, resolution or color depth. The TIFF is used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms such as Macintosh and IBM PC-compatible computers.
Timbre: Characteristic sound. Timbre is formed and affected by the ratios of harmonics to their fundamental, allowing for the difference heard in the same pitch played on different instruments.
Time & Materials: Method of charging for services on a time spent plus actual cost of materials basis.
Time Agenda: An outline program of events and time of commencement that is tailored to the needs of an event; also known as sequence of events.
Time Coding: The numerical synchronization of sound and film elements, encoded with matching numbers (frame to frame) to ensure synchronicity.
Time Delay: Length of time between the production of live sound and when it is actually heard.
Time Draft: A draft which matures either a certain number of days after acceptance or a certain number of days after the date of draft. See DATE DRAFT. See Also SIGHT DRAFT.
Time Lines: Includes each task to be accomplished and is the core of the program plan.
Timecode: The sequential numbers assigned to each frame of video or film representing the passage of time in hours, minutes, seconds, and even tenths of seconds, for example 01:20:35:10, which indicates that this frame can be found in the first hour, twentieth minute, thirty-fifth second, and first tenth of a second of videotape or film. Time codes are used for catalog purposes when identifying scenes and are most important during editing, saving valuable time in locating scenes needed for a particular edit.
TIP: A voluntary and selective amount of money, given at will for special or excellent service.
Tiramisu: An Italian dessert including marscapone cheese and flavored with coffee.
Title: Denotes person’s rank, office, sex or, in women, matrimonial status.
Titles: Graphic materials shown on camera.
Tivoli Lights: The small white lights on cords, used to decorate ficus and other trees.
TLO: Total Loss Only.
Toggle Switch: A lever moved back and forth to open or close an electric circuit.
Toilet: Sanitary convenience. Also Called LAVATORY, WATER CLOSET (WC).
Ton: Freight rates for liner cargo generally quoted on the basis of a certain rate per ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton (2000 pounds) or a measurement ton.
Tongue & Groove: Construction techniques of assembling two wood elements, one piece having a protrusion, and the other piece having a recess, which interlock.
Top Hat: A metal tube that fits in the front of a lighting fixture to reduce the spill of stray light without reshaping the beam or creating hard edges.
Top Table: Seating location for honored guests and/or event presenters. See HEAD TABLE.
Tormentor: The horizontal curtain that runs from stage right to left connecting the vertical curtains called teasers.
Tortoni: Vanilla ice cream blended with crushed macaroons and frozen in little frilled paper cups.
TOT: Transient Occupancy Tax.
TOT: Transient Occupancy Tax. Tax placed on hotel/motel room rentals. Generally all or part of revenues thus generated is used in financing the operation of convention facilities. Also Called BED TAX, ROOM TAX, HOTEL TAX.
Total Admission Per Spite: The total admission revenue less discounts divided by total attendance including complimentary admissions.
Total Meeting Room Days: Total number of event rooms in a facility multiplied by the number of opportunities to lease the space. Commonly 365 days is used as the multiplier.
Total Room Day Inventory: Total number of leasable square feet within a facility multiplied by the number of days in the year.
Tote Bag: A large bag given to all attendees when they arrive at the meeting or event to collect handouts and carry materials.
Touch Up: Paints accompanying an exhibit, in the necessary colors, for the purpose of painting nicks and scratches.
Tour Broker: An individual licensed and bonded by the Interstate Commerce Commission to operate motor coach tours in the US and, in some cases, Canada. See TOUR OPERATOR.
Tour Conductor: See ESCORT.
Tour Departure: Related to the operation of any published tour: the date of the start by any individual or group of a particular travel program, by extension, the entire operation of that single tour.
Tour Escort: See ESCORT.
Tour Guide: Someone who takes people on sightseeing excursions of limited duration.
Tour Leader: See ESCORT.
Tour Operator: A person or company that creates and/or markets inclusive tours and/or subcontracts their performance. Most tour operators sell through travel agents and/or directly to clients. See CONTRACTOR. See Also OPERATOR.
Tour Operator: Develops, markets and operates group travel programs that provide a complete travel experience for one price and includes transportation (airline, rail, motorcoach, and/or ship), accommodations, sightseeing, selected meals and an escort. Tour operators market directly to the consumer, through travel agents and are beginning to be listed on computerized reservation systems.
Tour Option: Any component at a package tour that is not included in the package price, but may be purchased as an added feature or to extend the length of the package. Tour options are purchased at additional cost.
Tour Package: 1) Prearranged combination of elements such as air, hotel, sightseeing and social events packaged together and sold as an all-inclusive package price, not sold by component parts. 2) To package, meaning to combine elements as above into an all-inclusive package product sold as such at a package price. See PACKAGE.
Tour Voucher: A certificate issued by a tour broker to be used for lodging, meals, sight seeing tours, etc.
Tour Wholesaler: An individual or company that sells tour packages and tour product to travel agents. Tour wholesalers usually receive a 20% discount from accommodations, transportation companies and attractions and pass on a 10 to 15% discount to the retail agent.
Tour: 1) Any prearranged journey to one or more destinations and back to the point of origin. 2) A recreational trip or activity provided to event attendees and/or accompanying persons as a scheduled portion of the event program. Also Called EXCURSION.
Tour-Based Fares: Reduced rate excursion fares available to those who buy prepaid tours or packages.
Tourism: The business of providing and marketing services and facilities for pleasure of travelers. Thus, the concept of tourism is of direct concern to governments, carriers, and the lodging, restaurant and entertainment industries, and of indirect concern to virtually every industry and business in the world.
Tourist Card: A type of visa issued to tourists prior to entertain a country (required in addition to a passport or other proof of citizenship).
Tourist Information Board: See CONVENTION AND VISITORS BUREAU (CVB). Nonprofit organization supported by transient room taxes, government budget allocations, private memberships, or a combination of any of these funding mechanisms. A CVB typically encourages groups to hold events, conventions and trade shows in its city, assists those groups with advance preparation and during meetings, and promotes tourism.
Tourist Office: An organization which exists to promote a town or country to groups or individuals as a tourist destination.
Tourist Service: A service concerned with the organization of excursions which are purely pleasure.
Tourist/Visitor/Traveler: Any person who travels either for leisure or business purposes more than 100 miles (round-trip) in a day or who stays overnight away from his/her primary domicile.
Tow Motor: See FORKLIFT/FORKTRUCK.
Tower: Structure to which lighting instruments are attached.
Track Lighting: Lights attached along a rod-like metal track mounted on a ceiling or wall permitting flexible spotlighting and other lighting effects.
Tractor-Trailer: Tractor is the driving unit of a large truck; trailer is the container unit.
Trade Association: Group of persons or businesses in a particular trade or industry. Generally these organizations are exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code.
Trade Center: Special purpose office building oriented toward a specific group of users. Typically, wholesalers in a specific industry (e.g., furniture, apparel) have showrooms to exhibit products to buyers.
Trade Day: Day of an exhibition restricted to attendance by professional or trade visitors.
Trade Fair: An international term for an exhibition.
Trade Missions: Group tour with a business rather than a vacation purpose. Usually planned for business or government representatives traveling overseas to secure new business in foreign markets for their product, city or other entity.
Trade Publication: A magazine that targets a specific industry.
Trade Show Facilitation Web Site: A Web-site whose primary function is to provide attendees (buyers) and exhibitors (sellers) with online tools that help facilitate participation in an upcoming event.
Trade Show: An exhibition of products and/or services held for members of a common or related industry. Not open to the general public. See EXHIBITION. Compare With GATE SHOW, PUBLIC SHOW, CONSUMER SHOW.
Trade: Relating to groups whose members work in common fields.
Trade-Out: A type of barter. The exchange of goods and services instead of using money.
Traffic Density: How crowded the aisles are at an event.
Traffic Flow: Movement of people through an area. A supposed or directed path that attendees will take through an exhibition.
Trailer Interline: Temporary transfer of control of a trailer from one carrier to a connecting carrier, without the need to re-handle the cargo.
Trainer: Instructor of techniques and skills on a specific subject.
Training Meeting: Structured learning session in which instructor presents specific information and techniques.
Tramp Steamer: A ship not operating on regular routes or schedules. Calls at any point where cargo is available.
Transaction: A reservation for airline, hotel or car presented to a queue for processing; a key operational definition of the billing process with each transaction billed to a client at a contract-specified rate, generally $xx per transaction.
Transcription: Written copy of spoken material.
Transducer: Device which converts one form of energy directly into another form of energy. Loudspeakers, microphone and motors are transducers which convert motion into electricity or vice versa. Light-emitting diodes and solar cells are transducers that convert electricity to light or vice versa, etc.
Transfer: 1) Process of moving equipment and/or people from one point to another. 2) Transportation between terminals and hotels. 3) To copy a picture or sound that is transmitted by one recorder to another, or to make a tape copy from film.
Transformative Learning: Learning that occurs during the second half of life which is directed at attaining a new consciousness and self-understanding.
Transformer: Device used to isolate or to raise or lower an A.C. voltage from its input to its output. A typical transformer may consist of two separate coils of wire wound on a magnetic steel score. When an A.C. current passes through the input coil (primary) it produces an alternative magnetic field in the core, which in turn produces current flow in the output coil (secondary). By winding, a greater number of coil turns for the secondary winding, the input voltage is raised at the output; by using fewer secondary turns, the output voltage is lowered. An isolation transformer uses the same number of turns for primary and secondary, maintaining the same input voltage at the output while severing the electrical connection of the two coil windings.
Transient Occupancy Tax: TOT or bed tax is a locally set tax on the cost of commercial accommodations and campgrounds.
Transient Occupancy Tax: TOT. Tax placed on hotel/motel room rentals. Generally all or part of revenues thus generated is used in financing the operation of convention facilities. Also Called BED TAX, ROOM TAX, HOTEL TAX.
Transient Response: Response of audio equipment to sudden large changes in signal amplitude, such as those produced by musical transients.
Transient Space: Short-term rental space.
Transient: Momentary amplitude peak in program source. A pop from a switch or scratched record may form signal transients. Musical transients occur as a result of such things as percussion instruments, piano and guitar. Normal musical transients may have amplitude peaks as high as 40dB above the average program levels, requiring headroom in the circuits and equipment used to reproduce them.
Transit and Exhibition Insurance: The insurance that covers loss or damage caused deliberately or accidentally by third parties during loading, unloading, transshipment, transport, and exhibition.
Transit Visa: Visa allowing holder to stop over in a country to make a travel connection or for a brief visit.
Transit: Passenger changing planes without going through security and/or customs.
Translation: The rendering of one language into another of something written or spoken. See CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETATION, INTERPRETATION, INTERPRETATION IN RELAY, SIMULTANEOUS INTERPRETATION, WHISPERED INTERPRETATION, WIRELESS INFRARED INTERPRETING SYSTEM.
Translite: A defused transparency, usually mounted between rigid plastic panels.
Translucence: A silhouette of the hand will be visible through the fine china that makes it semi transparent.
Translucency: A sheet of treated thin material that may be used to produce silhouette effects.
Translucent Rear Projection Screen: Plastic screen with a special gray coating allowing images projected from behind the screen to be viewed by the audience in front.
Transmission Fibers: Fiber optics used for light or information transmission; also known as fiber optics.
Transmitter Unit: An apparatus for transmitting radio waves through space.
Transparency: 1) Audiovisual material designed to be shown on an overhead projector (also called an overhead). 2) A black and white or color translucent (see-through) photograph or artwork.
Transport Coordinator/Officer: Person in charge of planning and managing transportation arrangements for participants.
Transportation: Means of transport, i.e. buses, coaches, cars, etc.
Trapping: Method of consolidating shipments. Usually defines function of an LTL trucker grouping freight for shipment to a particular show.
Travel Agent/Agency: Person or firm which is licensed and specializes in travel related arrangements, such booking hotel rooms, meals, transportation, cruises, tours, vacation packages and other travel elements.
Travel Agent: An individual who arranges travel for individuals or groups. Travel agents may be generalists or specialists (cruises, adventure travel, conventions and meetings.) The agents receive a 10 to 15% commission from accommodations, transportation companies and attractions for coordinating the booking of travel. They typically coordinate travel for their customers at the same or lower cost than if the customer booked the travel on his/her own.
Travel Insurance: An insurance against accidents that occur in the course of travel to or from an event, traveling abroad on business or pleasure.
Travel Mission: Group tour with a business rather than a vacation purpose. Usually planned for business or government representatives traveling overseas to secure new business in foreign markets for their product, city or other entity. See TRADE MISSIONS.
Travel Product: Refers to any product or service that is bought by or sold to consumers of trade including accommodations, attractions, events, restaurants, transportation, etc.
Travel Seasons: Travel industry business cycles including: Peak: Primary travel season Off Peak: Period when business is slowest Shoulder: Period between peak and off peak periods when business is stronger, but has room for growth.
Travel Suppliers: Services that cater to travelers (hotels, restaurants, transportation, etc.).
Travel Trade: The collective term for tour operators, wholesalers and travel agents.
Travel: Leisure and other travel including travel for business, medical care, education, etc. All tourism is travel, but not all travel is tourism.
Traveler 1) Large curtain on a heavy duty traverse rod, which opens horizontally from the middle or one side of the stage. 2) A person who is visiting a different area than that in which he or she lives.
Traveler: Definitions very, but in general a traveler is someone who leaves their own economic trade area, (usually going a distance of a minimum of fifty to one hundred miles) and stays overnight.
Traverse: A curtain across a stage, usually towards the back of the stage.
Treadmill Stage: Machine device consisting of belts running on the stage floor where actors may give the illusion of traveling over a distance.
Treads: See CYCLORAMA.
Treasurer: An individual appointed to control the finances of an event or organization.
Trestle Table: A rectangular table ranging from 4’ to 12’ in length and 2 /2’ in width.
Trim Props: Props arranged to decorate the set. Also Called SET DRESSING.
Trip Director: An escort for an incentive company. Larger companies reserve this title for the person who directs all personnel and activities for a particular incentive trip.
Trip Tray: Box rigged to empty its contents, such as snow or confetti, onto the stage.
Triple Room: Room with at least two beds occupied by three persons. The symbol used by APEX to denote it is:
Triple Sheet: Bed made with a third sheet on top of the blanket. Also Called 3-SHEET.
Tripod Screen: Portable projection screen (usually not larger than 10-12 feet) with three folding legs and a pull-up surface supported by a rod on the back.
Trouble Box: A box containing tools and supplies to repair an exhibit or product if a problems occurs. See GANG BOX. See Also JOB BOX.
Trouble Shoot: Process of finding out why plans or equipment are not working properly.
Truck Loaders: Union labor specifically responsible for unloading equipment.
Truckload Rates: Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
Truckload: Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
Truffle: 1) A fungus which grows underground in France, and is very expensive. 2) A chocolate candy.
Truss: 1) A frame to carry the room of a tent. 2) A structure of steel bars used to suspend lighting or other technical equipment over a stage. 3) To tie or bind something tightly.
Trust Receipt: Release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer in which the bank retains title to the merchandise. The buyer, who obtains the goods for manufacturing or sales purposes, is obligated to maintain the goods (or the proceeds from their sale) distinct from the remainder of his or her assets and to hold them ready for repossession by the bank.
Try Out Room: Room where speakers can check their presentations, slides, overheads, videotapes etc. See READY ROOM.
Tsatske: See TCHOTCHKE.
TSB: Trade Show Bureau.
TSEA: Trade Show Exhibitors Association (formerly the International Exhibitors Association). A member of the Convention Industry Council.
T-Shape Set-Up: Series of tables set up in the shape of the block T with chairs set all around except at the head table.
Tube Lights: A string of small, low voltage lights contained in a clear or transparent colored plastic tube, generally wired to be run by a three- or four-circuit sequencer (controller); used as a highlighter around signs, stages, or entrances. They can be bent and mounted on peg-board or other surfaces to form lighted words. See ROPE LIGHTS.
Tuner: Radio, usually AM/FM type, for receiving off-the-air signals for use within the in house system.
Tunnel: A horizontal cone of light produced by lasers and fog.
Turn the House: Procedure using an equalizer and sound source through which the sound of a system is adapted to the particular characteristics of a performance space. In the permanently installed system, the equalization is usually set permanently and not changed. In touring systems, the system will be equalized to fit each venue.
Turn-Around Time: The time it takes to return to your original point of departure during a continuous move.
Turnaround: An action required to break down and reset a room.
Turnbuckle: Hardware installed between stretched cable to adjust tension.
Turn-Down Service: Early evening service in which beds are prepared for sleeping. Usually includes replacement of bathroom linens, perhaps leaving the lights on, turning on a radio, or adding candy on the pillow.
Turndown Service: Preparation of a bedroom for sleeping by hotel or cruise ship staff that includes turning down the sheets and placing a mint or candy on the pillow.
Turnkey Exhibit: A system whereby the exhibit manager turns responsibility of the display over to an exhibit house. In essence, the exhibitor simply 'turns the key' upon arrival at the event and opens the booth/stand.
Turnover: 1) Breaking down and resetting a function room with a different set-up. 2) A pastry that usually has a fruit filling.
Turntable: Electrically or manually rotating platform.
Turret Projector: General term for slide projector that stores slides in rotating cylinder, dropping or passing slides one at a time between light source and lens.
Tuxedo Table: Bar height cocktail table. See Also COCKTAIL TABLE.
TV Monitor: A type of screen used to show a video image, which has denser pixels (for a sharper image) than a normal television screen.
Tweeter: Loudspeaker designed to reproduce high frequencies only. Tweeters are typically use at frequencies beyond the center of the audio spectrum which, if placed on a logarithmic scale like a piano keyboard, would be about 630 Hz.
Twenty Footer: A 20' by (usually) 10' exhibit space. Similar terminology (a 30 footer, etc.) may be used.
Twin Bed: A bed measuring 38” x 75” (95cm x 88cm); also known as a single bed. See SINGLE BED.
Twinkle Lights: Flickering or intermittent lights.
Twist Lock: Type of electrical plugs which are connected by twisting together as opposed to standard male and female plugs.
Two-By-Two Slide: Piece of 35 mm photographic film in a 2 in x 2 in cardboard, glass or plastic mount. See SLIDE.
Two-Tiered Set-Up: A seating arrangement with a row of seats on low risers around a BOARDROOM SET-UP. A very space-intensive set-up.
Type Casting: Selecting actors for roles because they resemble the characters in real life.
Typeface: Name of type design; e.g., Helvetica, Schoolbook, Times Roman, etc. See FONT.
Typeset Copy: Text whose type has been mechanically set prior to reproduction.
Typographic Families: Distinct styles of letter and character design.
Tyrex Cord: A type of cord that, within proper specifications, makes an acceptable electrical cord for exhibits.
U/W: Insurance underwriter.
UCT: Universal Coordinated Time. A standard for time whose master clock is maintained by the United States National Observatory in Bethesda, Maryland. See GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT). See Also ZULU TIME.
U-Format: Professional/broadcast quality video format in which the tape is 3/4-inch wide and can be used to record and playback; not compatible with VHS or Beta formats. Sometimes called U-Matic.
UL 2305: Standard for safety for exhibition display units.
Ultra Vires: Beyond the scope or in excess of legal power or authority.
Ultraviolet Lamp: A black light used to make phosphorescent and fluorescent paints glow in the dark.
U-Matic: Professional/broadcast quality video format in which the tape is 3/4-inch wide and can be used to record and playback; not compatible with VHS or Beta formats. Sometimes called U-Format.
Umeboshi: Japanese plum used as a condiment.
Unanimous: All who voted are in agreement.
Unbalanced: Wiring consisting of two conductors, usually one inside the other with the outer conductor shielding the inner conductor. The outer shield is connected to ground or chassis and the inner conductor carries the signal. Virtually all hi-fi signal wiring is of the unbalanced type, as is wiring inside TV sets, audio mixers and other audio equipment.
Under Depart: A guest who stays at a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days longer than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called STAY OVER, OVERSTAY. Compare With UNDERSTAY.
Under the Auspices of: With guiding sponsorship by.
Under the Patronage Of: Use of an eminent name by way of endorsement.
Underground Hospitality Suite: Hospitality suite that is not hosted by an official sponsoring organization (liability risk).
Underliner: Plate used under bowl, glass, condiments, and so forth. See BASE PLATE.
Underpayment: An insufficient payment or funds for items ordered.
Underscore: To play music during a scene.
Under-Stay: A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called EARLY-OUT, UNEXPECTED DEPARTURE. Compare With OVERSTAY.
Unexpected Departure: A guest who checks out of a housing facility (hotel, motel, etc.) one or more days earlier than his or her scheduled departure date. Also Called UNDER-STAY, EARLY-OUT. Compare With OVERSTAY.
Uniform Resource Locator: URL. A web site address.
Union Call: 1) The number of union members hired to work for an event. 2) Additional servers obtained from a labor source shared by several hotels. 3) The minimum number of hours for which a union laborer must be paid, regardless of actual hours worked.
Union Contract: Written agreement between an employer and a union specifying the terms and conditions of employment for workers, the status of the union, and the procedure of settling disputes arising during the contract term. See COLLECTIVE AGREEMENT.
Union House: Facility in which workers are governed and regulated by an organized union; often maintain exclusive contractors.
Union Jurisdiction: The limits or territory within which control may be exercised by a union may be of at least two kinds. One has to do with geographical limits; the other with trade or craft activity.
Union Official: Representative of a union either selected or elected by the membership to conduct the affairs of the union.
Union Referral: Method of hiring in which the union refers job applicants to the employer. Differs from central hiring hall in that there is no fixed location at which applicants gather.
Union Set-Up: Seating arrangement with both tables and chairs. Tables are lined up in rows, one behind the other, with chairs facing head table. See CLASSROOM SET-UP.
Union Shop: A unionized business in which the employer by agreement is free to hire nonmembers as well as members of the union, but newly-hired employees are required, as a condition of employment, to join the union within a specified time after employment, and in which all employees must maintain good standing in the union as a condition of employment.
Union Steward: On-site union official. The steward is elected by his or her co-workers to oversee that particular union's work in the facility. Stewards are responsible for resolving disputes over union jurisdiction, handling grievances, and ensuring that the terms specified in the union contract are complied with. Also known as Committeeman.
Union: A labor organization, typically made up of workers from the same trade formed for the purpose of advancing its members' interests such as dealing collectively with their employer on issues of wages, hours, working conditions and other matters pertaining to their employment.
Uniserve Property: A hotel property in which the convention services manager (CSM) handles all aspects of the event, including catering.
Unity Gain: No gain or loss. A device with unity gain would produce the same voltage at its output as the voltage applied at its input.
Unsettled Account: An outstanding invoice not yet paid.
Upgrade: Provide a higher level of product or service than was ordered or reserved (e.g., move to First Class on an airplane, move to a suite in a hotel).
Upgradeable Fare: Many carriers offer full coach fares that allow the passenger to upgrade to first class without an additional cost.
Uplink: The station used to transmit signals from Earth to a satellite (videoconferencing).
Up-Linking: The sending of video signals via microwave to an existing satellite for transmission to selected sites or anyone capable of satellite reception for that signal; used for teleconferencing or broad distribution of a message on a national or international basis.
Upper Case: Capital letters.
Upper Deck: Any occupied second story or greater area, which is accessible by an approved means of egress.
Upright: 1) Vertical position. 2) Metal support for drapes. See POST.
Upsell: To increase the revenue generated from an attendee or exhibitor, usually by selling such individuals valued added services or goods.
Upson Board: Fiberboard of varying thickness, used as the surface for visual enhancement such as paint or decoration.
Upstage: Part of the stage farthest from the audience or camera.
URL: Uniform Resource Locator. Internet address for a web site. Starts with http://.
Usability: A lesser standard of accessibility that does not meet ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities (ADAAG) minimum requirements, but that may be functionally usable by some people with disabilities.
Use Day: Term used as a base unit in calculating occupancies. Various facilities have developed different definitions; one of the most common is use of all or part of a facility by one client or tenant for all or part of one day for any purpose; includes event, move-in, move-out and hiatus days.
Useage: Temporary storage area for excess furniture, carpet and equipment. Typically used by general service contractor on show site.
U-Shape Set-Up: Series of tables set up in the shape of the letter U with chairs set all around on one or both sides.
USSG: U.S. Standard Gauge for bolt threads.
Utilities: Specific energy needs relating to use of electrical power, water, or gas. Traditionally associated with exhibitor needs.
Utility Box: Box in floor, wall, or column which houses electric outlets and other utility sources.
Vacuum Forming: Technique for molding plastic sheets by heating and drawing sheets in a vacuum press.
Valance: 1) A trip or finish curtain, usually 12” deep with scalloped edge, used to give a tent a finished appearance. 2) A short overhead, decorative border normally used as a light baffle or screen.
Validated Export License: A document issued by the U.S. Government authorizing the export of commodities for which written export authorization is required by law. See GENERAL EXPORT LICENSE.
Validation: Travel agency’s ARC/IATA approved name and number imprinted upon the airline ticket.
Validity Period: The length of time of an airline ticket validity printed on the “pot valid after” column.
Valley: Time frame of lower demand for a service or product, depressed period. See SHOULDER SEASON.
Value Added Tax: VAT. A tax that is added to a product at each step of the manufacturing and marketing process reflecting value which has been added to the product by processing.
Value Season: See LOW SEASON.
Van Line: Carrier that specializes in shipping uncrated exhibits, high-tech equipment and delicate materials that require special handling.
Van Shipment: Shipment of exhibit properties via van lines, often consisting of large pieces, crated or uncrated, such as furniture and exhibit materials.
Vapor Lights: Special effects lighting. (Street lights are usually mercury vapor lights which have a bluish tint; sodium vapor lights have a yellowish cast and are often used in parking lots.)
Variable Costs or Expenses: Expenses that vary based upon various factors, such as the number of attendees.
Varietal Wine: Wines made mainly from one variety of grape. Such wines have the characteristics of the primary grape used. Popular varietals are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel.
Variety Entertainment: Acts such as singers, dancers, comics, or any stand-up performer as opposed to a musical group.
VAT: Value Added Tax. Applies to all EC countries, Switzerland and other countries around the world. A tax on the estimated market value added to any product at each stage of its manufacture or distribution, ultimately passed on to the consumer. The percentage applies to CIF value and duties and the percentage differs from one country to another. Local VAT on forwarding/handling services is not charged between EC companies with a registered VAT number, or to non-EC exhibitors on condition the local forwarder executes Customs clearance and transport.
VCR: Video cassette recorder.
Veau: (voh) Veal.
Vega Mic: Brand name which has been generalized to mean WIRELESS MICROPHONE.
Vegan: An individual who eats no meat, and does not use other animal products and by-products such as eggs, dairy products, honey, leather, fur, silk, wool, cosmetics, and soaps derived from animal products. See also VEGETARIAN.
Vegetarian: An individual who does not eat meat. See Also VEGAN.
Velcro®: Brand name of special tape used to adhere objects to a display. The tape has two components: loop and fabric. The two components adhere to one another, but may be easily separated and reattached, allowing graphics and other materials to be moved.
Velour: A plush fabric like velvet, used for draperies, upholstery, etc.
Velouté: White sauce used as a base for other sauces.
Velox: Photographic material used in preparing camera-ready art. See PHOTOSTAT.
Vendor: One who sells services or goods.
Veneer: Finish product that is applied over a base material, or substrate.
Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means to or from any space.
Venue Manager: The person at the venue responsible for all transportation aspects at the location.
Venue: 1) Site or destination of meeting, event or show 2) Location of performance such as hall, ballroom, auditorium, etc.
Verbatim Report: A full and exact word-for-word transcript, in writing, of all speeches, debates or discussions.
Verified Attendance: The number of attendees who actually come to the event. Attendee figures, which have been audited to substantiate the actual number of attendees at an event.
Veronique: Prepared with creamy white sauce and green grapes.
Vertical Cuisine: Menu items where food is stacked for height, such as endive boats filled with salad greens. See ARCHITECTURAL CUISINE.
Vertical Show: An exhibition at which the products or services being displayed represent one element of an industry or profession. See EXHIBITION. See Also HORIZONTAL SHOW.
Vertical Union: Union with jurisdiction over all occupations, skilled and unskilled, in an entire industry.
Very Important Person: VIP. Person who has a special function at the event (speaker, dignitary, etc.) and should be treated with special care and attention.
VHS Format: Video Home System. Video tape recorder and player utilizing ½-inch (1.27 centimeter) tape. Not compatible with beta format.
Vibrancy: Degree of intensity of colors. See BRILLIANCE.
Vice-Chairman/ Woman/Person: Person selected to deputize for, or assist, the chairman in controlling and managing either a committee or a conference session.
Vidalia Onions: Sweet onions, only from South Georgia.
Video Character Generator: A computer-assisted device used to generate and create letters, numbers and symbols electronically. In simple terms, it is a video image; it can also be used to recap key points made by a speaker or supply basic information such as final credits.
Video Enhancement: The enlargement of a video image from the size of a typical consumer television screen to dimensions for large projection screens used when attempting to present a larger-than-life image to an audience. See VIDEO MAGNIFICATION.
Video Formats: Type and size of the recording format in which a video presentation is recorded or played back. These include VHS (the most common), Beta, U-Matic, 1 inch, ¾ inch and ½ inch.
Video Magnification: See IMAGE MAGNIFICATION. See Also VIDEO ENHANCEMENT.
Video Player: Equipment for paying back video and audio signals on magnetic tape.
Video Projection: Casting video images on monitors or on large screen.
Video Projector: An equipment used to project a video image on a large screen; also known as teleprojector.
Video Recorder: Equipment for the recording of images and sound on a magnetic tape in the form of a video.
Videoconference: A meeting between two or more people or groups across a distance, including video, audio, and potentially other data, utilizing telecommunications or communications satellites for transmission of the signal. See TELECONFERENCE.
Videographers: Professionals hired to develop videotape that can be used to promote an event.
Videotape: Magnetic tape used in video equipment to record and play back video images.
Videowall: Array of video screens in a rectangular fashion on which images may be displayed individually on each screen or portions of the same image may be displayed in an enlarged format involving the whole or part of the array.
Vinaigrette: Served with an oil and vinegar dressing.
Vintage: Wine made from a grape harvest of a specific year. A vintage wine is made using 95 percent of those grapes. Wines made from grapes harvested from several years are called nonvintage.
Vinyl Tops: Plastic table-top coverings.
Vinyl: Plastic material used for drapes or table tops.
VIP Identification: A means for identifying the very important people at an event using badges, flowers or special seating.
VIP Services: A system of providing special assistance to a high-ranking official or important guest.
VIP: Very Important Person. Person who has a special function at the event (speaker, dignitary, etc.) and should be treated with special care and attention.
Virtual Conferencing: Any meeting where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for two-way communication via satellite communications or the Internet. Each party sees and hears the other through a TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers.
Virtual Tour: Any tour where people at two or more distant locations are linked using video, audio and data for communications. Each party sees and hears the tour through a TV screen or computer monitor and audio speakers.
Virtual Trade Show: Exhibit of products or services that can be viewed over the internet.
Visa: Permit, recorded in a passport, to enter a country for a specific purpose and period of time.
Vischyssoise: Chilled potato, chicken broth soup.
Visit: Organized outing to a local place of interest.
Visitor: 1) An attendee and/or a potential customer. 2) According to the World Tourism Organization: Visitor refers to any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of trip is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
Visitors Center: Travel information center located at a destination to make it easier for visitors to plan their stay; often operated by a convention and visitors bureau, chamber of commerce or tourism promotion organization.
Visqueen: A type of clear plastic sheeting used to protect carpeting.
Visual Aid: Materials used in a presentation to give a visual image that will help clarify or demonstrate a point to the audience.
Vitrified: Material that is changed into a glass like substance by fusion due to heat.
VOC: Volatile Organic Compounds. Volatile organic compounds are compounds that have a high vapor pressure and low water solubility. Many VOCs are human-made chemicals that are used and produced in the manufacture of paints, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. VOCs typically are industrial solvents, such as trichloroethylene; fuel oxygenates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE); or by-products produced by chlorination in water treatment, such as chloroform. VOCs are often components of petroleum fuels, hydraulic fluids, paint thinners, and dry cleaning agents. VOCs are common ground-water contaminants.
Voice Over: Announcement or other narrative copy which is “voiced” over the top of video or musical programming.
Voicing: Equalization of sounds produced by a system such as a piano or a loudspeaker so that the audio spectrum is produced evenly with all notes or frequencies at the same volume.
Void: A ticket returned within the same calendar week it was issued but prior to the submission of the ARC sales report. Voided tickets do not appear on the traveler or corporate credit card.
Vol au Vent: Puff pastry shell or cup, usually filled with creamed meat entrée or a fruit/custard dessert.
Voltage: The measurement of the force needed for the flow of electricity. An International System unit of electromotive force or potential difference, usually expressed in “volts.”
Volume Incentive: See OVERRIDE.
Volume: 1) Rates or classes are those for which a minimum weight (Vol. min. wt.) is provided; charges will be assessed at the volume minimum weight shown in the tariff, except that actual weight will apply when in excess of the minimum weight. 2) Popular term used to denote sound intensity level.
Voluntary Upgrade: Individual moves to higher priced class of service or accommodations for additional fare.
Volunteer Speaker: Speaker (usually a member of the organization) who volunteers their skills as a presenter for a meeting.
Voucher Plan: Hotel plan whereby the daily rate covers the room cost and provides a set amount that can be applied to food and beverage items.
Vouchers: Forms or coupons provided to a traveler who purchases a tour that indicate that certain tour components have been prepaid. Vouchers are then exchanged for tour components like accommodations, meals, sightseeing, theater tickets, etc. during the actual trip.
V-Shape Set-Up: Seating arrangement in which chairs are arranged in rows slanted in a V shape and separated by a center aisle. They face the head table or speaker. See HERRINGBONE SET-UP. See Also CHEVRON SET-UP.
VT: Video tape.
VTR: Video tape recording or video tape recorder.
vu Meter: Special voltmeter calibrated in units called volume unit (vu). It is used to give a visual indication for a change in volume of complex waveforms, such as the human voice or music. The meter is usually found on audio equipment manufactured both for commercial and consumer products.
VUSA Fare: Visit U.S.A. fare. In conjunction with a roundtrip airfare to the United States, offers travelers discounted air fares within the United States and Canada.
W&I: Weighing and Inspection.
WA: With Average. A marine insurance term meaning that a shipment is protected from partial damage whenever the damage exceeds a specified percentage - usually 3 percent.
Wage Pattern: The wage structure of various jobs in a specific industry or area.
Wage Rate: Rate of pay per period of time or per unit of production for labor or services provided by an individual on a given job.
Wages: The total of all salaries, wages paid, contract labor payments, worker’s compensation, consultant fees, benefit costs and payroll taxes that are made to employees for work carried out.
Waiter Parade: White gloved servers circle the room, usually with flaming dishes, before placing the food on the tables with a flourish.
Waiting Time: An accessorial charge associated with the cost of a carrier waiting in line or waiting in a marshalling area to get unloaded or re-loaded. Most carriers will not charge for minor delays.
Waitlist: Term used for a list of clients awaiting transportation or accommodations at time when they are unavailable. Waitlist clients are confirmed as a result of subsequent cancellations.
Waitlisted: If a traveler’s preferred flight is completely full, in most instances it can be waitlisted and an alternative flight confirmed as “protection.”
Waiver of Subrogation: A release of rights to substitute one party for another party. The release of an insurance company right to succeed to the insured's rights to sue for damages against the tortfeasor, after the insurance company pays an insured's claim of loss due to another's tort.
Waldorf Salad: Dish of diced apples, celery, chopped walnuts, mayonnaise and whipped cream.
Walk and Talk: Slang for a reception without seating.
Walk Away Clause: See CANCELLATION CLAUSE.
Walk Out: See STRIKE.
Walk: Guest holding confirmed sleeping room reservation is denied accommodations at the hotel where to reservation is held upon their arrival and is relocated to another hotel.
Walkie-Talkie: Wireless radio that transmits and receives oral communications.
Walk-In/Out Music: Music accompanying arriving and exiting guests at an event (processional, recessional).
Walk-In: Guest requesting accommodations without a prior reservation.
Walking Guest: A guest with hotel reservations who is denied a room due to the hotel’s overbooking.
Walking Tour: A standard trip for sightseeing or for inspection on foot on a certain course.
Walk-On: Music played while a new presenter arrives on stage.
Walk-Through: 1) Review of event details. 2) Site inspection. 3) Inspection of function room prior to function. 4) Inspection of exhibit floor prior to opening of the event.
Walk-Up Call: Asking the celebrity or speaker to come up on stage from the audience to make a presentation.