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APA Style Guide: Citation Formatting

This guide is a resource for preparing papers according to the rules of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Introduction to APA Style Citations

Creating Citations and References Page in APA Style


Book with one author:

Format Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Example Lipczynski, J. (2008). Business. Chicago, IL: Review Press.

Book with two authors


First Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial., & Second Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial (Year). Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Example Bernstein, C., & Woodward, B. (1974). All the President's Men. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Edited Book with no author

Format Editor Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Ed.). (Year) Title of book: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Example Gold, M.K. (Ed.). (2012). Debates in the Digital Humanities. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Book Chapter

Format Chapter Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.) Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.



Robinson, L. (2011). Sustainability and preservation of affordable housing: greening row houses in Philadelphia.

     In R. Longstreth (Ed.) Sustainability and historic preservation: Toward a holistic view (pp. 97-106). Newark,

     DE: University of Delaware Press.



Robinson, L. (2011). Sustainability and preservation of affordable housing: greening row houses in Philadelphia.

     In R. Longstreth (Ed.) Sustainability and historic preservation: Toward a holistic view (pp. 97-106).


*Omit Location: Publisher, include URL or DOI

Book with an edition other than the first

Format Author Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title (Number ed.). Location: Publisher.
Example Anton, H., Bivens, I., & Davis, S. (2002). Calculus (7th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

Multivolume Work/Organization as Author:

Format Name of Organization. (Year). Title (Vols. numbers). Location: Publisher

Europa Publications Limited. (2009). The Europa World Year Book (Vols. 1-2). London, England: Europa Publications.


Format Author, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of E-Book.

Burdick, A., Drucker, J., Lunenfeld, P., Presner, T., & Schnapp, J. (2012). Digital_Humanities.

Articles from Print and Online Sources

Article from a journal

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page-numbers.



Hess, D.J. (2014). Sustainability transitions: A political coalition perspective. Research Policy, 43(2), 278-283.*

*Omit URL




Bienen, H.S. (2012). The financial future of research universities. Social Research, 79(3), 631-634.




Collet, F. & Vives, L. (2013). From preeminence to prominence: The fall of U.S. business schools and the rise of

     European and Asian business schools in the Financial Times Global MBA rankings. Academy of Management

     Learning & Education, 12(4), 540-563. doi:10.5465/amle.2011.0094

Article from online periodical

Author Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume if available.


Sonntag, G. & Palsson, F. (2007). No longer the sacred cow – no longer a desk: Transforming reference service to

     meet 21st century user needs. Library Philosophy and Practice.

Article from a Newspaper or Magazine

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine. p. #.



Esterl, M. (2014, January 27). Corporate news: Data breaches like Coke's aren't rare. The Wall Street Journal, p. B3.



Greenhouse, S. (2014, February 10). Labor battle at Kellogg plant in Memphis drags on. The New York Times.*

*Omit pager number, include URL.

Online and Electronic Sources

Data Sets

Format Name of Organization. (Year). Title of dataset [Data File]. Retrieved from:

Rhode Island Housing. (2013). 2013 Rhode Island income limits for low- and moderate-income households [Data File].

Web Page:

Websites are cited similarly to print sources, but identifying the author and date of publication can be tricky. If the content you are citing has a clear named author and date of publication, use that information. For content with no apparent author or publication date identified, use the name of the organization running the site and a "last updated" date, which usually appear near the bottom of the page.

Format Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of page.

University of California Berkeley Library. (2013, February 28). Citing your sources.

Online Encyclopedia Article:

Format Title of Entry. (Date). In Title of encyclopedia.

Business Law. (n.d.).* In Enyclopedia Britannica online.

*If publication date is available, use "n.d." to indicate "no date"

YouTube videos

Format Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [video file].

Pike's Peak Community College Writing Center. [PPCC Writing Center eLearning Series]. (2016, March 29). APA style |

     Part 1: formatting [video file]. .

Lectures, Presentations, and Class Notes

Need to cite something you heard or read in class? Here are some different scenarios you may run into if your professor wants you to cite information you’re using from a class session.

Citing notes that you took in class:

APA style designates notes taken during class as a “personal communication,” so they need an in text  citation, but no citation in the reference list (Columbia College, 2018). Use this citation when you’re either quoting or paraphrasing a professor but do not have a written form of the information to cite. Format for the in text citation is as follows:

Format (First initial. Second initial. Last name of faculty member who gave lecture, personal communication, Month Day, Year lecture took place).
Example  “I love books” (E. X. Libris, personal communication, February 14, 2019).
Example   Explaining why he had pursued a career in book conservation, E. X. Libris stated simply, “I love books” (personal communication, February 14, 2019).

Citing PowerPoint Presentation Slides

If the notes you took directly quote or paraphrase a PowerPoint presentation from a lecture, you’ll need to use in text citations and include a citation for the presentation in your reference list (Columbia College, 2018). If you retrieved it from a website, include the URL. Format for the reference list citation is as follows:

Reference List
Format Instructor’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year presentation was created). Title of presentation: Subtitle if any. [PowerPoint presentation]. Retrieved from URL.
Example Libris, E. X. (2019). Why books are amazing: Overview of the history of the codex. [PowerPoint presentation].
In-text citation - Paraphrase
Format (Instructor’s Last Name, Year)
Example (Libris, 2019)
In-text citation - Direct Quote
Format (Instructor’s Last Name, Year, slide slide number)
Example (Libris, 2019, slide 3)

Citing class handouts

If you’re citing a class handout in print, you’ll include an in-text and reference list citation (Columbia College, 2018).

Reference List
Format Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year handout created if known). Title of handout: Subtitle [Class handout]. Providence, RI: Johnson & Wales University, Course code.

Besh, J. A. (2019). Sustainable food systems: Urban farming and restaurant supply chains in New Orleans [Class handout]. Providence, RI: Johnson & Wales University, SFS2301.

In-text citation - Paraphrase
Format (Instructor’s Last Name, year)
Example (Besh, 2019)
In-text citation - Direct quote
Format (Instructor’s Last Name, year, page or paragraph number)
Example (Besh, 2019, p.3)


Columbia College. (2018, December 14). How do I cite?: Class notes, lectures and presentations.  Retrieved February 17, 2019     from

Other Print Sources

Conference Proceedings Published in a Book or eBook

Format Contributor, A. (Year, Month of conference). Contribution title. In Editor, A. (Ed.) Title of book (pp. #-#). Location: Publisher. DOI

Marriot, T. (2009, July). Storytelling memories: A tangible connection to bomber command veterans. In Schneider M. (Ed.) 

     Workshops Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Environments. (pp. 3-8). Amsterdam: IOS Press


Government Publication

Format Name of Department or Author, A. (Year). Title of report (Report no. xxx). Location: Publisher. DOI

Real Estate Research Corporation. (1975). Evaluating local urban renewal projects : A simplified manual. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.

Dissertations and Theses

Format Author, A. A. (Year) Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

​Carlino, A. (1997). Roger Williams in the Twentieth Century: A summary analysis of the last twenty years' scholarship. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Rhode Island College, Providence, RI.

Specific Database Citations


The Coca-Cola Company. (n.d.). In Redbooks: Academic edition.

Business Insights Global:

Textron Inc. (n.d.). In Business Insights: Global.

Business Plans Handbook:

Hill, S.D. (ed.). (2014). Motel. Business Plans Handbook, 28, 159-172.|CX3705700025



Togo. (n.d.). In CountryWatch.

First Research:

Toy & Game Manufacturing. (2014, 6 January). In First Research.

Going Global:

Boston: Job search resources. (n.d.). In Going Global: USA career guides.


Turk, S. (2013). Dentists in the US.

LexisNexis Company Profile:

Hasbro, Inc. (n.d.). In LexisNexis Academic.

SBI. (2013). Global and Regional Markets for CCS Infrastructure & Equipment.



Morningstar. (2013, October 3). Active Health Foods, Inc. [Data File].

MRI+ Reporter:

The Atlantic. (n.d.). In MRI+ Reporter.


PrivCo. (2013, November 7). Alex and Ani, LLC.

Richard K Miller:

Miller, R.K., & Washington, K. (2013). International consumer markets 2014.


Sports Business Research Network. (n.d.). Sporting goods apparel company revenues and profits (in mil of $) [Data File].


The Red Bulletin. (n.d.). From Standard Rate & Data Service.


Number of households in the U.S. from 1960 to 2013 (in 1,000). (2014). [Graph illustration created from US Census

     Bureau data]. Statista.



VentureLine. (2014, 17 February). Industry ratios analysis report: PepsiCo. [Data File].