|Example 1||Plagiarism is generally treated as a serious academic offense at most universities (Johnson, 2003).|
|Example 2||Johnson in his work points out that plagiarism is treated as a serious academic offense at most universities (2003).|
If you are quoting a source word for word, you must include the page number on which the quote appears with the in-text citation.
|Example||According to Johnson (2003), "Universities treat plagiarism very seriously and may expel students as a result" (p. 32).|
(Author after quote)
|As this plagiarism expert states, "Universities treat plagiarism very seriously and may expel students as a result" (Johnson, 2003, p. 32).|
For sources that do not use page numbers, cite the paragraph the quote came from.
|Example||According to Anderson (2012), "Research begins by first brainstroming what you want to write your paper on" (para. 3).|
For citing longer quotations (40 words or more), you will want to omit quotation marks and create a freestanding block. In this case, start the quotation on a new line, indent 1/2 inch from left margin and keep double spaced.
In Johnson’s (2003) book on plagiarism, he states:
Universities treat plagiarism as a very serious offense
and may expel students as a result. As such, it is important
for librarians and professors alike to make sure students
learn how to cite sources properly and credit the authors
of the works they use. (p. 32)
|Example:||In a study of how students researched, it was found those who started their projects early ended up creating higher quality papers ("Research Habits," n.d.).|
Two Authors: Within the sentence use the word "and" in between the authors and in the citation use "&".
James and Jones (2001) found that college students who did not sleep enough had lower grades.
|Example||One study found that college students who did not sleep enough had lower grades (James & Jones, 2001).|
Three to Five Authors: In the first reference, use all authors when citing. For later references to the same work, just use the first author followed by "et al."
|First citation||Frogs prefer to ride unicycles over bicycles (Donalds, Wilson, Brown, Smith, & Alexander, 1998).|
|Subsequent citations of the study||Frogs have have natural aptitude for riding unicycles due to their anatomy (Donalds et al., 1998).|
Six or more authors:
Use the first author and "et al." for all references.
|Example||(Miller et al., 2013)|
Work Discussed in Secondary Source:
When discussing a work found in a secondary source, first mention the work discussed and in parentheses mention the secondary work "as cited in."
|Example||According to Lewis's study (as cited in Wilson, 2001), business students were more likely to use the APA format in writing papers.|
Discussing the same source multiple times in a paragraph
Need to discuss the same source multiple times in a paragraph? Dennis Johnson of Rasmussen College has some great advice on how to make sure the proper citations are included while avoiding an awkward amount of in-text citations. Follow this link to read examples: https://rasmussen.libanswers.com/faq/32328