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HOSP 6509: Hospitality & Tourism Global Issues: FAQ about APA

Q: How do I reference a Web page that lists no author?

A: When there is no author for a Web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry:

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from

The text citation would then just cite a few words of the title to point the reader to the right area of your reference list.

Q: What format should I follow to cite an interview?

A: An interview is not considered recoverable data, so no reference to this is provided in the References. You may, however, cite the interview within the text as a personal communication. For example,

(J. Smith, personal communication, August 15, 2001)

Q: How do I cite a newspaper article when there is no author?

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15) The Washington Post, p. A12.

  • Alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title.
  • In text, use a short title for the parenthetical citation: ("New Drug," 1993).
  • Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. or pp.

(adapted from the fifth edition of APA's Publication Manual, © 2001)

APA Reference List Online Documents

Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved month day, year, from

Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved May 2, 2006, from

OWL website:

How To Critique An Article

 Taken from UIS Center for Teaching and Learning




So your assignment is to critique a journal article. This handout will give you a few guidelines to

follow as you go. But wait, what kind of a journal article is it: an empirical/research article, or a

review of literature? Some of the guidelines offered here will apply to critiques of all kinds of

articles, but each type of article may provoke questions that are especially pertinent to that type

and no other. Read on.

1. Name(s) of the author(s)

2. Title of article

3. Title of journal, volume number, date, month and page numbers

4. Statement of the problem or issue discussed

5. The author’s purpose, approach or methods, hypothesis, and major conclusions.

The bulk of your critique, however, should consist of your qualified opinion of the article.

Read the article you are to critique once to get an overview. Then read it again, critically. At this

point you may want to make some notes to yourself

The following are some questions you may want to address in your critique no matter what type

of article you are critiquing. (Use your discretion. These points don’t have to be discussed in

this order, and some may not be pertinent to your particular article.)

1. Is the title of the article appropriate and clear?

2. Is the abstract specific, representative of the article, and in the correct form?

3. Is the purpose of the article made clear in the introduction?

4. Do you find errors of fact and interpretation? (This is a good one! You won’t believe how

often authors misinterpret or misrepresent the work of others. You can check on this by

looking up for yourself the references the author cites.)

5. Is all of the discussion relevant?

6. Has the author cited the pertinent, and only the pertinent, literature? If the author has

included inconsequential references, or references that are not pertinent, suggest deleting


7. Have any ideas been overemphasized or underemphasized? Suggest specific revisions.

8. Should some sections of the manuscript be expanded, condensed or omitted?

9. Are the author’s statements clear? Challenge ambiguous statements. Suggest by

examples how clarity can be achieved, but do not merely substitute your style for the


10. What underlying assumptions does the author have?

11. Has the author been objective in his or her discussion of the topic?

In addition, here are some questions that are more specific to empirical/research articles.

1. Is the objective of the experiment or of the observations important for the field?

2. Are the experimental methods described adequately?

3. Are the study design and methods appropriate for the purposes of the study?

4. Have the procedures been presented in enough detail to enable a reader to duplicate them?

(Another good one! You’d be surprised at the respectable researchers who cut corners in

their writing on this point.)

5. Scan and spot-check calculations. Are the statistical methods appropriate?

6. Do you find any content repeated or duplicated? A common fault is repetition in the text

of data in tables or figures. Suggest that tabular data be interpreted of summarized, nor

merely repeated, in the text.