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GDES 3210

I'm honored to be your personal librarian for GDES 3200.  

A research appointment can really save you time on your Magazine Design Research project: click here to book an appointment or let me know a time that works for you 

Need more help? chat or text with a librarian for quick, free, super fast help.

Sarah Naomi Campbell| | 401-598-5019

  1. A brief summary or timeline of the evolution of magazine design. Did anything strike you as significantly different from how we design magazines today?
    1. Librarian tip: Consider not only the obvious when you research (print vs. digital) but also other factors that have changed over time, such as the relationship of design to the body itself. Who is considered worthy of being on a cover? In other words, which bodies are commodified? How does that change over time? What is the relationship between those who have power and models, for example? Between those who have power and designers? 
  2. Who were the primary audiences of magazines decades ago vs. today? 
    1. Librarian tip: Browse the magazines hyperlinked below - what can you tell about the ads and articles in terms of the primary audiences? Who is depicted? Who is left out?
    2. Articles: Search the Articles tab on the library's homepage using simple keywords, such as "Magazine Audience". I've linked a few from various dates to get you started. Notice the Subject Terms. Notice how different each one is depending on the historical context (the 1960s article varies greatly from the more recent, etc.)
      1. Does Title Confusion Affect Audiences?
      2. Man-to-Man: A Content Analysis of Sole-Male Images
      3. How Good is the Editorial Interest Method of Measuring Magazine Audiences?
  3. How would you describe the overall design and layout of magazines of yesterday vs. today? Was typography more or less critical back then? 
    1. Librarian tip: Browse the magazines below and compare the past versions to the present. Browse the other resources linked in the guide, including "How magazine covers have evolved over the years" and the print book on reserve for you at the Downcity Library, The magazine in America, 1741-1990
  4. Name at least two designers who made an impact on the history and evolution of magazine design.
    1. Librarian tip: You can click on the Library's Homepage and then search the Everything search box, using either a name of your choice or the Subject Term Graphic designers
  5. Include a works cited slide and be sure to credit any librarians that assist you in your research. 
    1. Librarian tip: If you're searching the databases, look for the "Cite" tool, and copy and paste the citation in the style of your choice. If you're searching online, click the MLA/APA tab in ulearn, or ask a librarian on chat for help!
  6. Include the name(s) of any librarians who assisted you with this research. HINT: they are a great resource for this assignment!

Sample approach to research the history of magazine design, focusing mainly on theme, audience, layout design, typography, grid systems and designers who made an impact on the design and evolution of the magazines we read today.

Step 1.  Choose a magazine to explore a theme with from those below.  Explore past and present links. How have the covers changed? Who's represented? Who is left out? Who is on the cover? What role does gender, race, ethnicity, body image and sexuality play in terms of audience and representation? What are some cultural themes which emerge? Who is the audience?  Choose one keyword representing your theme to explore in the databases.  Ex:  If race is your theme, "race" would be the keyword.

Step 2. Click the Articles tab in ulearn and click one of the article links.    Click a Subject Term inside the article and click Full Text.  What do you find?  Add in your keyword - how do the results change?  Email an article to yourself.

Step 3. Click the library's homepage and then click the Journals & Magazines link on the left. Enter your Magazine name and click "Search within" using a keyword which represents your theme or choose "Issues" or "Dates" to explore issues by date. What do you find?

Subject Terms are specific to your topic and hyperlinked to more articles on that topic.

Subject Terms:
African American press
AMERICAN periodicals
MEN'S magazines
Print culture
ESQUIRE (Periodical)
Vogue (Periodical)
WOMEN'S periodicals
Wintour, Anna, 1949-
Magazine advertising
Gender identity

Vogue (present)                                       Harpar's Bazaar (present)            Glamour (present)   

 Vogue (past)                                           Harper's Bazaar (past)                 Glamour (past)                       

                                                                                                                                             Glamour (covers)


Print (present)                               Out (Present)                         

Print (present)                               Out (Past)


Articles on the Evolution of Magazines

Magazines are a reflection of the historical context and political climate of their time period.  The following articles explore some of the historical and political themes inherent to the magazine's evolution.

Try a search yourself, by clicking an article below, and then clicking one of the Subject Terms inside the article to explore your theme in the library's databases.

Subject Terms are specific to your topic and hyperlinked to more articles on that topic.

Subject Terms:
AFRICAN American models
African American press
AMERICAN periodicals
MEN'S magazines
Print culture
ESQUIRE (Periodical)
Vogue (Periodical)
WOMEN'S periodicals
Wintour, Anna, 1949-
Magazine advertising
Gender identity

To find more articles, click below, and then click on a Subject Term within the article or try searching within the following journal:  Media History

The Use of Black Models in Advertising.

Throwing stones across the Potomoc: The Colored American Magazine, the Atlantic Monthly, and the Cultural Politics of National Reunion.

Unconventional Politics: Nineteenth-Century Women Writers and U.S. Indian Policy

Women's Magazines: An Interdisciplinary Lens

Where Has All the Sex Advice for Men Gone? In a post #MeToo era, men's magazines are pulling sex from their pages. Experts say they shouldn't.

Establishing and Adhering to Sexual Consent: The Association between Reading Magazines and College Students’ Sexual Consent Negotiation.

Tightening and Loosening Masculinity's (k)Nots: Masculinity in the Hearst Press during the Interwar Period.

The Sporting Pornographer.

Giving em Hell

Queering the New Woman: Ideals of Modern Femininity in The Ladies' Journal, 1915-1931.

"Rebel Woman," "Little Woman," and the Eclectic Print Culture of Protest in The Woman Worker, 1926-1929.

Saints, sinners and standards of femininity: discursive constructions of anorexia nervosa and obesity in women's magazines.

"That's Part of What We Do": The Performative Power of Vogue's Anna Wintour

 The Magazine in America, 1741-1990 by John W. Tebbel; Mary E. Zuckerman Already popular in England, the magazine did not appear in America until 1741, the last of the print media to be established in the New World. Pioneered by Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Noah Webster, these first periodicals were written for an elite, and often slavishly followed the patterns established by their British predecessors. Today, American magazine publishing is the most innovative in the world and, far from elitist, reaches a mass market of millions. In this new volume, John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman do for magazines what Tebbel did for book publishing in Between Covers, providing the first comprehensive one-volume history of the medium. This carefully researched and sweeping work ranges from tales of the earliest magazines, The General Magazine of Benjamin Franklin and American Magazine by Andrew Bradford, to contemporary giants such as TV Guide and Sports Illustrated, and includes a history of the business press. There are sections devoted to women's magazines--surprisingly diverse and widespread, even in the 19th century--and to periodicals for black Americans--an area most often overlooked in media history. All of the big names of magazine publishing are here, too: Hearst, the Harper Brothers, and Henry Luce, whose Time revolutionized the way news was reported, and whose Life became known as "America's magazine." Tebbel and Zuckerman cover an impressive array of magazines, from the staid (like William F. Buckley's National Review) to the offbeat (like Semiotext, which is aimed at "unidentified flying leftists, neo-pagans...and poetic terrorists"); and from the million-selling (which Ladies' Home Journal was the first to become in 1903) to the marginal (like The Masses, whose publishers invited Socialist Max Eastman to be editor with the succinct invitation, "You are elected editor of The Masses. No pay."). Along the way we find dozens of surprising details, even about the most familiar magazines; how many readers know, for example, that in the early part of this century, the publishers of Cosmopolitan wanted to establish a "Cosmopolitan University," and that they also tried to purchase Cuban independence from the Spanish for $100 million? The Magazine in America is packed with odd facts, candid portraits, and other insights into the world of magazine publishing. From accounts of business deals to anecdotes of the people involved, there is something for everyone interested in the medium and its history.

Best Practices for Citing Sources in Presentations

Why do I need to cite my sources in a presentation?
• Credible sources show that you have done your research and reinforce your own credibility.
• Giving credit to your sources links you to an ongoing scholarly conversation. By identifying where you got your ideas, you enable your own readers to find the sources that you used if they want to learn more.
• JWU's Academic Honesty Policy lists plagiarism as a violation of University policy, as well as one of personal integrity.

How do I cite my sources in a visual presentation?
• Include a citation for any content, quotes, or ideas from another source. The citation should be located either next to the information or below it.
• Cite in the text and provide a list of citations at the end.

How do I cite a magazine cover in my works-cited list and in my essay?

To cite the cover of a magazine, you can generally create a works-cited-list entry for the issue of the magazine and then key your in-text reference to the first element of the entry: 

The most recent issue of The Nation features on its cover an image of a donkey with the top of the Capitol building on its back.

Work Cited

The Nation. 17-24 Dec. 2018,

If you discuss a cover image in detail and wish to credit the artist, you could provide the artist’s full name at first mention in your prose or the artist’s last name in parentheses and list the entry under the artist’s name. 

The most recent issue of The Nation features on its cover an image, created by Doug Chayka, of a donkey with the top of the Capitol building on its back.

Work Cited

Chakya, Doug. Cover image. The Nation, 17-24 Dec. 2018,


The most recent issue of The Nation features on its cover an image of a donkey with the top of the Capitol building on its back (Chayka).

Work Cited

Chakya, Doug. Cover image. The Nation, 17-24 Dec. 2018,

Note that in the above example, since the cover image lacks a title, a description is provided in the “Title of source” slot.

Published 19 April 2019

Citing Images from WGSN

Image label (If including image in your written work):

Fig. 1 Gender Neutral Figure in Denim. (WGSN Denim Team, [Sept. 2018]).

In the text:

WGSN Denim Team [Sept. 2018].

In your list of figures or references (omit figure number if you haven't included the image in your assignment)

Figure 1. WGSN Denim Team. [Sept. 2018] Gender Neutral Figure in Denim. WGSN. [Online image]. available from